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revision 1.67, Fri Sep 29 15:00:17 2006 UTC revision 1.105, Wed May 14 09:09:25 2008 UTC
# Line 1  Line 1 
1  #  # -*- perl -*-
2    ########################################################################
3  # Copyright (c) 2003-2006 University of Chicago and Fellowship  # Copyright (c) 2003-2006 University of Chicago and Fellowship
4  # for Interpretations of Genomes. All Rights Reserved.  # for Interpretations of Genomes. All Rights Reserved.
5  #  #
# Line 13  Line 14 
14  # at info@ci.uchicago.edu or the Fellowship for Interpretation of  # at info@ci.uchicago.edu or the Fellowship for Interpretation of
15  # Genomes at veronika@thefig.info or download a copy from  # Genomes at veronika@thefig.info or download a copy from
16  # http://www.theseed.org/LICENSE.TXT.  # http://www.theseed.org/LICENSE.TXT.
17  #  ########################################################################
18    
19  package Tracer;  package Tracer;
20    
21      require Exporter;      require Exporter;
22      @ISA = ('Exporter');      @ISA = ('Exporter');
23      @EXPORT = qw(Trace T TSetup QTrace Confess Cluck Min Max Assert Open OpenDir TICK StandardSetup ScriptSetup ScriptFinish Insure ChDir);      @EXPORT = qw(Trace T TSetup QTrace Confess Cluck Min Max Assert Open OpenDir TICK StandardSetup EmergencyKey ETracing Constrain Insure ChDir Emergency Warn);
24      @EXPORT_OK = qw(GetFile GetOptions Merge MergeOptions ParseCommand ParseRecord UnEscape Escape);      @EXPORT_OK = qw(GetFile GetOptions Merge MergeOptions ParseCommand ParseRecord UnEscape Escape PrintLine PutLine);
25      use strict;      use strict;
26      use Carp qw(longmess croak);      use Carp qw(longmess croak carp);
27      use CGI;      use CGI;
28      use Cwd;      use Cwd;
29      use FIG_Config;      use FIG_Config;
# Line 34  Line 35 
35      use LWP::UserAgent;      use LWP::UserAgent;
36      use Time::HiRes 'gettimeofday';      use Time::HiRes 'gettimeofday';
37      use URI::Escape;      use URI::Escape;
38        use Time::Local;
39        use POSIX qw(strftime);
40        use Time::Zone;
41    
42    
43  =head1 Tracing and Debugging Helpers  =head1 Tracing and Debugging Helpers
44    
45  =head2 Introduction  =head2 Tracing
46    
47  This package provides simple tracing for debugging and reporting purposes. To use it simply call the  This package provides simple tracing for debugging and reporting purposes. To use it simply call the
48  L</TSetup> method to set the options and call L</Trace> to write out trace messages. Each trace  L</TSetup> or L</ETracing> method to set the options and call L</Trace> to write out trace messages.
49  message has a I<trace level> and I<category> associated with it. In addition, the tracing package itself  L</TSetup> and L</ETracing> both establish a I<trace level> and a list of I<categories>. Similarly,
50  has a list of categories and a single trace level set by the B<TSetup> method. Only messages whose trace  each trace message has a I<trace level> and I<category> associated with it. Only messages whose trace
51  level is less than or equal to this package's trace level and whose category is activated will  level is less than or equal to the setup trace level and whose category is activated will
52  be written. Thus, a higher trace level on a message indicates that the message  be written. Thus, a higher trace level on a message indicates that the message
53  is less likely to be seen. A higher trace level passed to B<TSetup> means more trace messages will  is less likely to be seen, while a higher trace level passed to B<TSetup> means more trace messages will
54  appear. To generate a trace message, use the following syntax.  appear.
55    
56    =head3 Putting Trace Messages in Your Code
57    
58  C<< Trace($message) if T(errors => 4); >>  To generate a trace message, use the following syntax.
59    
60        Trace($message) if T(errors => 4);
61    
62  This statement will produce a trace message if the trace level is 4 or more and the C<errors>  This statement will produce a trace message if the trace level is 4 or more and the C<errors>
63  category is active. Note that the special category C<main> is always active, so  category is active. There is a special category C<main> that is always active, so
64    
65  C<< Trace($message) if T(main => 4); >>      Trace($message) if T(main => 4);
66    
67  will trace if the trace level is 4 or more.  will trace if the trace level is 4 or more.
68    
# Line 61  Line 70 
70  following call is made in the B<Sprout> package, it will appear if the C<Sprout> category is  following call is made in the B<Sprout> package, it will appear if the C<Sprout> category is
71  active and the trace level is 2 or more.  active and the trace level is 2 or more.
72    
73  C<< Trace($message) if T(2); >>      Trace($message) if T(2);
74    
75    In scripts, where no package name is available, the category defaults to C<main>.
76    
77    =head3 Custom Tracing
78    
79    Many programs have customized tracing configured using the L</TSetup> method. This is no longer
80    the preferred method, but a knowledge of how custom tracing works can make the more modern
81    L</Emergency Tracing> easier to understand.
82    
83  To set up tracing, you call the L</TSetup> method. The method takes as input a trace level, a list  To set up custom tracing, you call the L</TSetup> method. The method takes as input a trace level,
84  of category names, and a set of options. The trace level and list of category names are  a list of category names, and a destination. The trace level and list of category names are
85  specified as a space-delimited string. Thus  specified as a space-delimited string. Thus
86    
87  C<< TSetup('3 errors Sprout ERDB', 'HTML'); >>      TSetup('3 errors Sprout ERDB', 'TEXT');
88    
89  sets the trace level to 3, activates the C<errors>, C<Sprout>, and C<ERDB> categories, and  sets the trace level to 3, activates the C<errors>, C<Sprout>, and C<ERDB> categories, and
90  specifies that messages should be output as HTML paragraphs.  specifies that messages should be sent to the standard output.
91    
92  To turn on tracing for ALL categories, use an asterisk. The call below sets every category to  To turn on tracing for ALL categories, use an asterisk. The call below sets every category to
93  level 3 and writes the output to the standard error output. This sort of thing might be  level 3 and writes the output to the standard error output. This sort of thing might be
94  useful in a CGI environment.  useful in a CGI environment.
95    
96  C<< TSetup('3 *', 'WARN'); >>      TSetup('3 *', 'WARN');
97    
98  In addition to HTML and file output for trace messages, you can specify that the trace messages  In addition standard error and file output for trace messages, you can specify that the trace messages
99  be queued. The messages can then be retrieved by calling the L</QTrace> method. This approach  be queued. The messages can then be retrieved by calling the L</QTrace> method. This approach
100  is useful if you are building a web page. Instead of having the trace messages interspersed with  is useful if you are building a web page. Instead of having the trace messages interspersed with
101  the page output, they can be gathered together and displayed at the end of the page. This makes  the page output, they can be gathered together and displayed at the end of the page. This makes
102  it easier to debug page formatting problems.  it easier to debug page formatting problems.
103    
104  Finally, you can specify that all trace messages be emitted as warnings.  Finally, you can specify that all trace messages be emitted to a file, or the standard output and
105    a file at the same time. To trace to a file, specify the filename with an output character in front
106    of it.
107    
108        TSetup('4 SQL', ">$fileName");
109    
110    To trace to the standard output and a file at the same time, put a C<+> in front of the angle
111    bracket.
112    
113        TSetup('3 *', "+>$fileName");
114    
115  The flexibility of tracing makes it superior to simple use of directives like C<die> and C<warn>.  The flexibility of tracing makes it superior to simple use of directives like C<die> and C<warn>.
116  Tracer calls can be left in the code with minimal overhead and then turned on only when needed.  Tracer calls can be left in the code with minimal overhead and then turned on only when needed.
117  Thus, debugging information is available and easily retrieved even when the application is  Thus, debugging information is available and easily retrieved even when the application is
118  being used out in the field.  being used out in the field.
119    
120    =head3 Trace Levels
121    
122  There is no hard and fast rule on how to use trace levels. The following is therefore only  There is no hard and fast rule on how to use trace levels. The following is therefore only
123  a suggestion.  a suggestion.
124    
# Line 121  Line 149 
149    
150  =back  =back
151    
152    The format of trace messages is important because some utilities analyze trace files.
153    There are three fields-- the time stamp, the category name, and the text.
154    The time stamp is between square brackets and the category name between angle brackets.
155    After the category name there is a colon (C<:>) followed by the message text.
156    If the square brackets or angle brackets are missing, then the trace management
157    utilities assume that they are encountering a set of pre-formatted lines.
158    
159    Note, however, that this formatting is done automatically by the tracing functions. You
160    only need to know about it if you want to parse a trace file.
161    
162    =head3 Emergency Tracing
163    
164    Sometimes, you need a way for tracing to happen automatically without putting parameters
165    in a form or on the command line. Emergency tracing does this. You invoke emergency tracing
166    from the debug form, which is accessed from the [[DebugConsole]]. Emergency tracing requires
167    that you specify a tracing key. For command-line tools, the key is
168    taken from the C<TRACING> environment variable. For web services, the key is taken from
169    a cookie. Either way, the key tells the tracing facility who you are, so that you control
170    the tracing in your environment without stepping on other users.
171    
172    The key can be anything you want. If you don't have a key, the C<SetPassword> page will
173    generate one for you.
174    
175    You can activate and de-activate emergency tracing from the debugging control panel, as
176    well as display the trace file itself.
177    
178    To enable emergency tracing in your code, call
179    
180        ETracing($cgi)
181    
182    from a web script and
183    
184        ETracing()
185    
186    from a command-line script.
187    
188    The web script will look for the tracing key in the cookies, and the command-line
189    script will look for it in the C<TRACING> environment variable. If you are
190    using the L</StandardSetup> method or a [[WebApplication]], emergency tracing
191    will be configured automatically.
192    
193  =cut  =cut
194    
195  # Declare the configuration variables.  # Declare the configuration variables.
196    
197  my $Destination = "NONE";   # Description of where to send the trace output.  my $Destination = "WARN";   # Description of where to send the trace output.
198  my $TeeFlag = 0;            # TRUE if output is going to a file and to the  my $TeeFlag = 0;            # TRUE if output is going to a file and to the
199                              # standard output                              # standard output
200  my %Categories = ( main => 1 );  my %Categories = ( main => 1 );
201                              # hash of active category names                              # hash of active category names
202    my @LevelNames = qw(error warn notice info detail);
203  my $TraceLevel = 0;         # trace level; a higher trace level produces more  my $TraceLevel = 0;         # trace level; a higher trace level produces more
204                              # messages                              # messages
205  my @Queue = ();             # queued list of trace messages.  my @Queue = ();             # queued list of trace messages.
206  my $LastCategory = "main";  # name of the last category interrogated  my $LastCategory = "main";  # name of the last category interrogated
207    my $LastLevel = 0;          # level of the last test call
208  my $SetupCount = 0;         # number of times TSetup called  my $SetupCount = 0;         # number of times TSetup called
209  my $AllTrace = 0;           # TRUE if we are tracing all categories.  my $AllTrace = 0;           # TRUE if we are tracing all categories.
210    my $SavedCGI;               # CGI object passed to ETracing
211    my $CommandLine;            # Command line passed to StandardSetup
212    umask 2;                    # Fix the damn umask so everything is group-writable.
213    
214    =head2 Tracing Methods
215    
216    =head3 Setups
217    
218        my $count = Tracer::Setups();
219    
220    Return the number of times L</TSetup> has been called.
221    
222    This method allows for the creation of conditional tracing setups where, for example, we
223    may want to set up tracing if nobody else has done it before us.
224    
225    =cut
226    
227  =head2 Public Methods  sub Setups {
228        return $SetupCount;
229    }
230    
231  =head3 TSetup  =head3 TSetup
232    
233  C<< TSetup($categoryList, $target); >>      TSetup($categoryList, $target);
234    
235  This method is used to specify the trace options. The options are stored as package data  This method is used to specify the trace options. The options are stored as package data
236  and interrogated by the L</Trace> and L</T> methods.  and interrogated by the L</Trace> and L</T> methods.
# Line 191  Line 280 
280          }          }
281      }      }
282      # Now we need to process the destination information. The most important special      # Now we need to process the destination information. The most important special
283      # cases are the single ">", which requires we clear the file first, and the      # case is when we're writing to a file. This is indicated by ">" (overwrite) and
284      # "+" prefix which indicates a double echo.      # ">>" (append). A leading "+" for either indicates that we are also writing to
285        # the standard output (tee mode).
286      if ($target =~ m/^\+?>>?/) {      if ($target =~ m/^\+?>>?/) {
287          if ($target =~ m/^\+/) {          if ($target =~ m/^\+/) {
288              $TeeFlag = 1;              $TeeFlag = 1;
289              $target = substr($target, 1);              $target = substr($target, 1);
290          }          }
291          if ($target =~ m/^>[^>]/) {          if ($target =~ m/^>[^>]/) {
292                # We need to initialize the file (which clears it).
293              open TRACEFILE, $target;              open TRACEFILE, $target;
294              print TRACEFILE Now() . " Tracing initialized.\n";              print TRACEFILE "[" . Now() . "] [notice] [Tracer] Tracing initialized.\n";
295              close TRACEFILE;              close TRACEFILE;
296                # Set to append mode now that the file has been cleared.
297              $Destination = ">$target";              $Destination = ">$target";
298          } else {          } else {
299              $Destination = $target;              $Destination = $target;
# Line 213  Line 305 
305      $SetupCount++;      $SetupCount++;
306  }  }
307    
308  =head3 StandardSetup  =head3 SetLevel
309    
310  C<< my ($options, @parameters) = StandardSetup(\@categories, \%options, $parmHelp, @ARGV); >>      Tracer::SetLevel($newLevel);
311    
312  This method performs standard command-line parsing and tracing setup. The return  Modify the trace level. A higher trace level will cause more messages to appear.
 values are a hash of the command-line options and a list of the positional  
 parameters. Tracing is automatically set up and the command-line options are  
 validated.  
313    
314  This is a complex method that does a lot of grunt work. The parameters can  =over 4
 be more easily understood, however, once they are examined individually.  
315    
316  The I<categories> parameter is the most obtuse. It is a reference to a list of  =item newLevel
 special-purpose tracing categories. Most tracing categories are PERL package  
 names. So, for example, if you wanted to turn on tracing inside the B<Sprout>,  
 B<ERDB>, and B<SproutLoad> packages, you would specify the categories  
317    
318      ["Sprout", "SproutLoad", "ERDB"]  Proposed new trace level.
319    
320  This would cause trace messages in the specified three packages to appear in  =back
 the output. There are threer special tracing categories that are automatically  
 handled by this method. In other words, if you used L</TSetup> you would need  
 to include these categories manually, but if you use this method they are turned  
 on automatically.  
321    
322  =over 4  =cut
323    
324  =item FIG  sub SetLevel {
325        $TraceLevel = $_[0];
326    }
327    
328  Turns on trace messages inside the B<FIG> package.  =head3 ParseDate
329    
330  =item SQL      my $time = Tracer::ParseDate($dateString);
331    
332  Traces SQL commands and activity.  Convert a date into a PERL time number. This method expects a date-like string
333    and parses it into a number. The string must be vaguely date-like or it will
334    return an undefined value. Our requirement is that a month and day be
335    present and that three pieces of the date string (time of day, month and day,
336    year) be separated by likely delimiters, such as spaces, commas, and such-like.
337    
338  =item Tracer  If a time of day is present, it must be in military time with two digits for
339    everything but the hour.
340    
341  Traces error messages and call stacks.  The year must be exactly four digits.
342    
343  =back  Additional stuff can be in the string. We presume it's time zones or weekdays or something
344    equally innocuous. This means, however, that a sufficiently long sentence with date-like
345    parts in it may be interpreted as a date. Hopefully this will not be a problem.
346    
347  C<SQL> is only turned on if the C<-sql> option is specified in the command line.  It should be guaranteed that this method will parse the output of the L</Now> function.
 The trace level is specified using the C<-trace> command-line option. For example,  
 the following command line for C<TransactFeatures> turns on SQL tracing and runs  
 all tracing at level 3.  
348    
349      TransactFeatures -trace=3 -sql register ../xacts IDs.tbl  The parameters are as follows.
350    
351  Standard tracing is output to the standard output and echoed to the file  =over 4
 C<trace>I<$$>C<.log> in the FIG temporary directory, where I<$$> is the  
 process ID. You can also specify the C<user> parameter to put a user ID  
 instead of a process ID in the trace file name. So, for example  
352    
353  The default trace level is 2. To get all messages, specify a trace level of 4.  =item dateString
 For a genome-by-genome update, use 3.  
354    
355      TransactFeatures -trace=3 -sql -user=Bruce register ../xacts IDs.tbl  The date string to convert.
356    
357  would send the trace output to C<traceBruce.log> in the temporary directory.  =item RETURN
358    
359  The I<options> parameter is a reference to a hash containing the command-line  Returns a PERL time, that is, a number of seconds since the epoch, or C<undef> if
360  options, their default values, and an explanation of what they mean. Command-line  the date string is invalid. A valid date string must contain a month and day.
 options may be in the form of switches or keywords. In the case of a switch, the  
 option value is 1 if it is specified and 0 if it is not specified. In the case  
 of a keyword, the value is separated from the option name by an equal sign. You  
 can see this last in the command-line example above.  
361    
362  You can specify a different default trace level by setting C<$options->{trace}>  =back
 prior to calling this method.  
363    
364  An example at this point would help. Consider, for example, the command-line utility  =cut
 C<TransactFeatures>. It accepts a list of positional parameters plus the options  
 C<safe>, C<noAlias>, C<start>, and C<tblFiles>. To start up this command, we execute  
 the following code.  
365    
366      my ($options, @parameters) = Tracer::StandardSetup(["DocUtils"],  # Universal month conversion table.
367                          { safe => [0, "use database transactions"],  use constant MONTHS => {    Jan =>  0, January   =>  0, '01' =>  0,  '1' =>  0,
368                            noAlias => [0, "do not expect aliases in CHANGE transactions"],                              Feb =>  1, February  =>  1, '02' =>  1,  '2' =>  1,
369                            start => [' ', "start with this genome"],                              Mar =>  2, March     =>  2, '03' =>  2,  '3' =>  2,
370                            tblFiles => [0, "output TBL files containing the corrected IDs"] },                              Apr =>  3, April     =>  3, '04' =>  3,  '4' =>  3,
371                          "command transactionDirectory IDfile",                              May =>  4, May       =>  4, '05' =>  4,  '5' =>  4,
372                        @ARGV);                              Jun =>  5, June      =>  5, '06' =>  5,  '6' =>  5,
373                                Jul =>  6, July      =>  6, '07' =>  6,  '7' =>  6,
374                                Aug =>  7, August    =>  7, '08' =>  7,  '8' =>  7,
375                                Sep =>  8, September =>  8, '09' =>  8,  '9' =>  8,
376                                Oct =>  9, October  =>   9, '10' =>  9,
377                                Nov => 10, November =>  10, '11' => 10,
378                                Dec => 11, December =>  11, '12' => 11
379                            };
380    
381    sub ParseDate {
382        # Get the parameters.
383        my ($dateString) = @_;
384        # Declare the return variable.
385        my $retVal;
386        # Find the month and day of month. There are two ways that can happen. We check for the
387        # numeric style first. That way, if the user's done something like "Sun 12/22", then we
388        # won't be fooled into thinking the month is Sunday.
389        if ($dateString =~ m#\b(\d{1,2})/(\d{1,2})\b# || $dateString =~ m#\b(\w+)\s(\d{1,2})\b#) {
390            my ($mon, $mday) = (MONTHS->{$1}, $2);
391            # Insist that the month and day are valid.
392            if (defined($mon) && $2 >= 1 && $2 <= 31) {
393                # Find the time.
394                my ($hour, $min, $sec) = (0, 0, 0);
395                if ($dateString =~ /\b(\d{1,2}):(\d{2}):(\d{2})\b/) {
396                    ($hour, $min, $sec) = ($1, $2, $3);
397                }
398                # Find the year.
399                my $year;
400                if ($dateString =~ /\b(\d{4})\b/) {
401                    $year = $1;
402                } else {
403                    # Get the default year, which is this one. Note we must convert it to
404                    # the four-digit value expected by "timelocal".
405                    (undef, undef, undef, undef, undef, $year) = localtime();
406                    $year += 1900;
407                }
408                $retVal = timelocal($sec, $min, $hour, $mday, $mon, $year);
409            }
410        }
411        # Return the result.
412        return $retVal;
413    }
414    
415  The call to C<ParseCommand> specifies the default values for the options and  =head3 LogErrors
 stores the actual options in a hash that is returned as C<$options>. The  
 positional parameters are returned in C<@parameters>.  
416    
417  The following is a sample command line for C<TransactFeatures>.      Tracer::LogErrors($fileName);
418    
419      TransactFeatures -trace=2 -noAlias register ../xacts IDs.tbl  Route the standard error output to a log file.
420    
421  In this case, C<register>, C<../xacts>, and C<IDs.tbl> are the positional  =over 4
 parameters, and would find themselves in I<@parameters> after executing the  
 above code fragment. The tracing would be set to level 2, and the categories  
 would be C<FIG>, C<Tracer>, and <DocUtils>. C<FIG> and C<Tracer> are standard,  
 and C<DocUtils> was included because it came in within the first parameter  
 to this method. The I<$options> hash would be  
422    
423      { trace => 2, sql => 0, safe => 0,  =item fileName
       noAlias => 1, start => ' ', tblFiles => 0 }  
424    
425  Use of C<StandardSetup> in this way provides a simple way of performing  Name of the file to receive the error output.
 standard tracing setup and command-line parsing. Note that the caller is  
 not even aware of the command-line switches C<-trace> and C<-sql>, which  
 are used by this method to control the tracing. If additional tracing features  
 need to be added in the future, they can be processed by this method without  
 upsetting the command-line utilities.  
426    
427  If the C<background> option is specified on the command line, then the  =back
 standard and error outputs will be directed to files in the temporary  
 directory, using the same suffix as the trace file. So, if the command  
 line specified  
428    
429      -user=Bruce -background  =cut
430    
431  then the trace output would go to C<traceBruce.log>, the standard output to  sub LogErrors {
432  C<outBruce.log>, and the error output to C<errBruce.log>. This is designed to      # Get the file name.
433  simplify starting a command in the background.      my ($fileName) = @_;
434        # Open the file as the standard error output.
435        open STDERR, '>', $fileName;
436    }
437    
438  Finally, if the special option C<-h> is specified, the option names will  =head3 Trace
 be traced at level 0 and the program will exit without processing.  
 This provides a limited help capability. For example, if the user enters  
439    
440      TransactFeatures -h      Trace($message);
441    
442  he would see the following output.  Write a trace message to the target location specified in L</TSetup>. If there has not been
443    any prior call to B<TSetup>.
444    
445      TransactFeatures [options] command transactionDirectory IDfile  =over 4
         -trace    tracing level (default 2)  
         -sql      trace SQL commands  
         -safe     use database transactions  
         -noAlias  do not expect aliases in CHANGE transactions  
         -start    start with this genome  
         -tblFiles output TBL files containing the corrected IDs  
446    
447  The caller has the option of modifying the tracing scheme by placing a value  =item message
 for C<trace> in the incoming options hash. The default value can be overridden,  
 or the tracing to the standard output can be turned off by suffixing a minus  
 sign to the trace level. So, for example,  
448    
449      { trace => [0, "tracing level (default 0)"],  Message to write.
        ...  
450    
451  would set the default trace level to 0 instead of 2, while  =back
452    
453      { trace => ["2-", "tracing level (default 2)"],  =cut
        ...  
454    
455  would leave the default at 2, but trace only to the log file, not to the  sub Trace {
456  standard output.      # Get the parameters.
457        my ($message) = @_;
458        # Strip off any line terminators at the end of the message. We will add
459        # new-line stuff ourselves.
460        my $stripped = Strip($message);
461        # Compute the caller information.
462        my ($callPackage, $callFile, $callLine) = caller();
463        my $callFileTitle = basename($callFile);
464        # Check the caller.
465        my $callerInfo = ($callFileTitle ne "Tracer.pm" ? " [$callFileTitle $callLine]" : "");
466        # Get the timestamp.
467        my $timeStamp = Now();
468        # Build the prefix.
469        my $level = $LevelNames[$LastLevel] || "($LastLevel)";
470        my $prefix = "[$timeStamp] [$level] [$LastCategory]$callerInfo";
471        # Format the message.
472        my $formatted = "$prefix $stripped";
473        # Process according to the destination.
474        if ($Destination eq "TEXT") {
475            # Write the message to the standard output.
476            print "$formatted\n";
477        } elsif ($Destination eq "ERROR") {
478            # Write the message to the error output. Here, we want our prefix fields.
479            print STDERR "$formatted\n";
480        } elsif ($Destination eq "WARN") {
481            # Emit the message to the standard error output. It is presumed that the
482            # error logger will add its own prefix fields, the notable exception being
483            # the caller info.
484            print STDERR "$callerInfo$stripped\n";
485        } elsif ($Destination eq "QUEUE") {
486            # Push the message into the queue.
487            push @Queue, "$formatted";
488        } elsif ($Destination eq "HTML") {
489            # Convert the message to HTML and write it to the standard output.
490            my $escapedMessage = CGI::escapeHTML($stripped);
491            print "<p>$timeStamp $LastCategory $LastLevel: $escapedMessage</p>\n";
492        } elsif ($Destination =~ m/^>>/) {
493            # Write the trace message to an output file.
494            open(TRACING, $Destination) || die "Tracing open for \"$Destination\" failed: $!";
495            print TRACING "$formatted\n";
496            close TRACING;
497            # If the Tee flag is on, echo it to the standard output.
498            if ($TeeFlag) {
499                print "$formatted\n";
500            }
501        }
502    }
503    
504  The parameters to this method are as follows.  =head3 T
505    
506  =over 4      my $switch = T($category, $traceLevel);
507    
508  =item categories      or
509    
510  Reference to a list of tracing category names. These should be names of      my $switch = T($traceLevel);
 packages whose internal workings will need to be debugged to get the  
 command working.  
511    
512  =item options  Return TRUE if the trace level is at or above a specified value and the specified category
513    is active, else FALSE. If no category is specified, the caller's package name is used.
514    
515  Reference to a hash containing the legal options for the current command mapped  =over 4
 to their default values and descriptions. The user can override the defaults  
 by specifying the options as command-line switches prefixed by a hyphen.  
 Tracing-related options may be added to this hash. If the C<-h> option is  
 specified on the command line, the option descriptions will be used to  
 explain the options. To turn off tracing to the standard output, add a  
 minus sign to the value for C<trace> (see above).  
516    
517  =item parmHelp  =item category
518    
519  A string that vaguely describes the positional parameters. This is used  Category to which the message belongs. If not specified, the caller's package name is
520  if the user specifies the C<-h> option.  used.
521    
522  =item argv  =item traceLevel
523    
524  List of command line parameters, including the option switches, which must  Relevant tracing level.
 precede the positional parameters and be prefixed by a hyphen.  
525    
526  =item RETURN  =item RETURN
527    
528  Returns a list. The first element of the list is the reference to a hash that  TRUE if a message at the specified trace level would appear in the trace, else FALSE.
 maps the command-line option switches to their values. These will either be the  
 default values or overrides specified on the command line. The remaining  
 elements of the list are the position parameters, in order.  
529    
530  =back  =back
531    
532  =cut  =cut
533    
534  sub StandardSetup {  sub T {
535        # Declare the return variable.
536        my $retVal = 0;
537        # Only proceed if tracing is turned on.
538        if ($Destination ne "NONE") {
539      # Get the parameters.      # Get the parameters.
540      my ($categories, $options, $parmHelp, @argv) = @_;          my ($category, $traceLevel) = @_;
541      # Add the tracing options.          if (!defined $traceLevel) {
542      if (! exists $options->{trace}) {              # Here we have no category, so we need to get the calling package.
543          $options->{trace} = [2, "tracing level"];              # The calling package is normally the first parameter. If it is
544      }              # omitted, the first parameter will be the tracelevel. So, the
545      $options->{sql} = [0, "turn on SQL tracing"];              # first thing we do is shift the so-called category into the
546      $options->{h} = [0, "display command-line options"];              # $traceLevel variable where it belongs.
547      $options->{user} = [$$, "trace log file name suffix"];              $traceLevel = $category;
548      $options->{background} = [0, "spool standard and error output"];              my ($package, $fileName, $line) = caller;
549      # Create a parsing hash from the options hash. The parsing hash              # If there is no calling package, we default to "main".
550      # contains the default values rather than the default value              if (!$package) {
551      # and the description. While we're at it, we'll memorize the                  $category = "main";
     # length of the longest option name.  
     my $longestName = 0;  
     my %parseOptions = ();  
     for my $key (keys %{$options}) {  
         if (length $key > $longestName) {  
             $longestName = length $key;  
         }  
         $parseOptions{$key} = $options->{$key}->[0];  
     }  
     # Parse the command line.  
     my ($retOptions, @retParameters) = ParseCommand(\%parseOptions, @argv);  
     # Get the logfile suffix.  
     my $suffix = $retOptions->{user};  
     # Check for background mode.  
     if ($retOptions->{background}) {  
         my $outFileName = "$FIG_Config::temp/out$suffix.log";  
         my $errFileName = "$FIG_Config::temp/err$suffix.log";  
         open STDOUT, ">$outFileName";  
         open STDERR, ">$errFileName";  
     }  
     # Now we want to set up tracing. First, we need to know if SQL is to  
     # be traced.  
     my @cats = @{$categories};  
     if ($retOptions->{sql}) {  
         push @cats, "SQL";  
     }  
     # Add the default categories.  
     push @cats, "Tracer", "FIG";  
     # Next, we create the category string by joining the categories.  
     my $cats = join(" ", @cats);  
     # Check to determine whether or not the caller wants to turn off tracing  
     # to the standard output.  
     my $traceLevel = $retOptions->{trace};  
     my $textOKFlag = 1;  
     if ($traceLevel =~ /^(.)-/) {  
         $traceLevel = $1;  
         $textOKFlag = 0;  
     }  
     # Now we set up the trace mode.  
     my $traceMode;  
     # Verify that we can open a file in the FIG temporary directory.  
     my $traceFileName = "$FIG_Config::temp/trace$suffix.log";  
     if (open TESTTRACE, ">$traceFileName") {  
         # Here we can trace to a file.  
         $traceMode = ">$traceFileName";  
         if ($textOKFlag) {  
             # Echo to standard output if the text-OK flag is set.  
             $traceMode = "+$traceMode";  
         }  
         # Close the test file.  
         close TESTTRACE;  
     } else {  
         # Here we can't trace to a file. We trace to the standard output if it's  
         # okay, and the error log otherwise.  
         if ($textOKFlag) {  
             $traceMode = "TEXT";  
552          } else {          } else {
553              $traceMode = "WARN";                  my @cats = split /::/, $package;
554                    $category = $cats[$#cats];
555          }          }
556      }      }
557      # Now set up the tracing.          # Save the category name and level.
558      TSetup("$traceLevel $cats", $traceMode);          $LastCategory = $category;
559      # Check for the "h" option. If it is specified, dump the command-line          $LastLevel = $traceLevel;
560      # options and exit the program.          # Convert it to lower case before we hash it.
561      if ($retOptions->{h}) {          $category = lc $category;
562          $0 =~ m#[/\\](\w+)(\.pl)?$#i;          # Validate the trace level.
563          Trace("$1 [options] $parmHelp") if T(0);          if (ref $traceLevel) {
564          for my $key (sort keys %{$options}) {              Confess("Bad trace level.");
565              my $name = Pad($key, $longestName, 0, ' ');          } elsif (ref $TraceLevel) {
566              my $desc = $options->{$key}->[1];              Confess("Bad trace config.");
             if ($options->{$key}->[0]) {  
                 $desc .= " (default " . $options->{$key}->[0] . ")";  
             }  
             Trace("  $name $desc") if T(0);  
567          }          }
568          exit(0);          # Make the check. Note that level 0 shows even if the category is turned off.
569            $retVal = ($traceLevel <= $TraceLevel && ($traceLevel == 0 || $AllTrace || exists $Categories{$category}));
570      }      }
571      # Return the parsed parameters.      # Return the computed result.
572      return ($retOptions, @retParameters);      return $retVal;
573  }  }
574    
575  =head3 Setups  =head3 QTrace
576    
577  C<< my $count = Tracer::Setups(); >>      my $data = QTrace($format);
578    
579  Return the number of times L</TSetup> has been called.  Return the queued trace data in the specified format.
580    
581  This method allows for the creation of conditional tracing setups where, for example, we  =over 4
582  may want to set up tracing if nobody else has done it before us.  
583    =item format
584    
585    C<html> to format the data as an HTML list, C<text> to format it as straight text.
586    
587    =back
588    
589  =cut  =cut
590    
591  sub Setups {  sub QTrace {
592      return $SetupCount;      # Get the parameter.
593        my ($format) = @_;
594        # Create the return variable.
595        my $retVal = "";
596        # Only proceed if there is an actual queue.
597        if (@Queue) {
598            # Process according to the format.
599            if ($format =~ m/^HTML$/i) {
600                # Convert the queue into an HTML list.
601                $retVal = "<ul>\n";
602                for my $line (@Queue) {
603                    my $escapedLine = CGI::escapeHTML($line);
604                    $retVal .= "<li>$escapedLine</li>\n";
605                }
606                $retVal .= "</ul>\n";
607            } elsif ($format =~ m/^TEXT$/i) {
608                # Convert the queue into a list of text lines.
609                $retVal = join("\n", @Queue) . "\n";
610            }
611            # Clear the queue.
612            @Queue = ();
613        }
614        # Return the formatted list.
615        return $retVal;
616  }  }
617    
618  =head3 Open  =head3 Confess
   
 C<< my $handle = Open($fileHandle, $fileSpec, $message); >>  
619    
620  Open a file.      Confess($message);
621    
622  The I<$fileSpec> is essentially the second argument of the PERL C<open>  Trace the call stack and abort the program with the specified message. When used with
623  function. The mode is specified using Unix-like shell information. So, for  the OR operator and the L</Assert> method, B<Confess> can function as a debugging assert.
624  example,  So, for example
625    
626      Open(\*LOGFILE, '>>/usr/spool/news/twitlog', "Could not open twit log.");      Assert($recNum >= 0) || Confess("Invalid record number $recNum.");
627    
628  would open for output appended to the specified file, and  Will abort the program with a stack trace if the value of C<$recNum> is negative.
629    
630      Open(\*DATASTREAM, "| sort -u >$outputFile", "Could not open $outputFile.");  =over 4
631    
632  would open a pipe that sorts the records written and removes duplicates. Note  =item message
 the use of file handle syntax in the Open call. To use anonymous file handles,  
 code as follows.  
633    
634      my $logFile = Open(undef, '>>/usr/spool/news/twitlog', "Could not open twit log.");  Message to include in the trace.
635    
636  The I<$message> parameter is used if the open fails. If it is set to C<0>, then  =back
 the open returns TRUE if successful and FALSE if an error occurred. Otherwise, a  
 failed open will throw an exception and the third parameter will be used to construct  
 an error message. If the parameter is omitted, a standard message is constructed  
 using the file spec.  
637    
638      Could not open "/usr/spool/news/twitlog"  =cut
639    
640  Note that the mode characters are automatically cleaned from the file name.  sub Confess {
641  The actual error message from the file system will be captured and appended to the      # Get the parameters.
642  message in any case.      my ($message) = @_;
643        # Set up the category and level.
644        $LastCategory = "(confess)";
645        $LastLevel = 0;
646        if (! defined($FIG_Config::no_tool_hdr)) {
647            # Here we have a tool header. Display its length so that the user can adjust the line numbers.
648            my $toolHeaderFile = "$FIG_Config::fig_disk/dist/releases/current/$FIG_Config::arch/tool_hdr";
649            # Only proceed if the tool header file is actually present.
650            if (-f $toolHeaderFile) {
651                my $fh;
652                if (open $fh, "<$toolHeaderFile") {
653                    my @lines = <$fh>;
654                    Trace("Tool header has " . scalar(@lines) . " lines.");
655                }
656            }
657        }
658        # Trace the call stack.
659        Cluck($message);
660        # Abort the program.
661        croak(">>> $message");
662    }
663    
664      Could not open "/usr/spool/news/twitlog": file not found.  =head3 Warn
665    
666  In some versions of PERL the only error message we get is a number, which      Warn($message);
 corresponds to the C++ C<errno> value.  
667    
668      Could not open "/usr/spool/news/twitlog": 6.  This method traces an important message. If an RSS feed is configured
669    (via I<FIG_Config::error_feed>) and the tracing destination is C<WARN>,
670    then the message will be echoed to the feed. In general, a tracing
671    destination of C<WARN> indicates that the caller is running as a web
672    service in a production environment; however, this is not a requirement.
673    
674    To force warnings into the RSS feed even when the tracing destination
675    is not C<WARN>, simply specify the C<Feed> tracing module. This can be
676    configured automatically when L</StandardSetup> is used.
677    
678    The L</Cluck> method calls this one for its final message. Since
679    L</Confess> calls L</Cluck>, this means that any error which is caught
680    and confessed will put something in the feed. This insures that someone
681    will be alerted relatively quickly when a failure occurs.
682    
683  =over 4  =over 4
684    
685  =item fileHandle  =item message
686    
687  File handle. If this parameter is C<undef>, a file handle will be generated  Message to be traced.
 and returned as the value of this method.  
688    
689  =item fileSpec  =back
690    
691  File name and mode, as per the PERL C<open> function.  =cut
692    
693  =item message (optional)  sub Warn {
694        # Get the parameters.
695        my ($message) = @_;
696        # Trace the message.
697        Trace($message);
698        # Check for feed forcing.
699        my $forceFeed = exists $Categories{feed};
700        # An error here would be disastrous. Note, however, that we aren't too worried
701        # about losing events. The error log is always available for the occasions where
702        # we mess up. Note that if debug mode is specified, we do this stuff even in a
703        # test environment.
704        eval {
705            # Do we need to put this in the RSS feed?
706            if ($FIG_Config::error_feed && ($Destination eq 'WARN' || $forceFeed)) {
707                # Yes. We now need to compute the date, the link, and the title.
708                # First, the date, in a very specific format.
709                my $date = strftime("%a, %02e %b %H:%M:%S %Y ", localtime) .
710                    (tz_local_offset() / 30);
711                # Environment data goes in here. We start with the date.
712                my $environment = "$date.  ";
713                # If we need to recap the message (because it's too long to be a title), we'll
714                # put it in here.
715                my $recap;
716                # Copy the message and remove excess space.
717                my $title = $message;
718                $title =~ s/\s+/ /gs;
719                # If it's too long, we have to split it up.
720                if (length $title > 60) {
721                    # Put the full message in the environment string.
722                    $recap = $title;
723                    # Excerpt it as the title.
724                    $title = substr($title, 0, 50) . "...";
725                }
726                # If we have a CGI object, then this is a web error. Otherwise, it's
727                # command-line.
728                if (defined $SavedCGI) {
729                    # We're in a web service. The environment is the user's IP, and the link
730                    # is the URL that got us here.
731                    my $key = $ENV{HTTP_X_FORWARDED_FOR} || $ENV{REMOTE_ADDR};
732                    $environment .= "Event Reported at IP address $key.";
733                    my $url = $SavedCGI->url(-full => 1, -query => 1);
734                    # We need the user agent string and (if available) the referrer.
735                    # The referrer will be the link.
736                    $environment .= "User Agent $ENV{HTTP_USER_AGENT}";
737                    if ($ENV{HTTP_REFERER}) {
738                        my $link = $ENV{HTTP_REFERER};
739                        $environment .= " referred from <a href=\"$link\">$link</a>.";
740                    } else {
741                        $environment .= " referrer unknown.";
742                    }
743                    # Close off the sentence with the original link.
744                    $environment .= " URL of error is <a href=\"$url\">$url</a>.";
745                } else {
746                    # No CGI object, so we're a command-line tool. Use the tracing
747                    # key and the PID as the user identifier, and add the command.
748                    my $key = EmergencyKey();
749                    $environment .= "Event Reported by $key Process $$.";
750                    if ($CommandLine) {
751                        # We're in a StandardSetup script, so we have the real command line.
752                        $environment .= "\n<pre>" . CGI::escapeHTML($CommandLine) . "</pre>\n";
753                    } elsif ($ENV{_}) {
754                        # We're in a BASH script, so the command has been stored in the _ variable.
755                        $environment .= "  Command = " . CGI::escapeHTML($ENV{_}) . "\n";
756                    }
757                }
758                # Build a GUID. We use the current time, the title, and the process ID,
759                # then digest the result.
760                my $guid = Digest::MD5::md5_base64(gettimeofday(), $title, $$);
761                # Finally, the description. This is a stack trace plus various environmental stuff.
762                my $stackTrace = "";
763                my @trace = LongMess();
764                # Only proceed if we got something back.
765                if (scalar(@trace) > 0) {
766                    $trace[0] =~ s/Tracer::Warn.+?called/Event occurred/;
767                    $stackTrace = "Stack trace:<pre>" . join("\n", @trace, "</pre>");
768                }
769                # We got the stack trace. Now it's time to put it all together.
770                # We have a goofy thing here in that we need to HTML-escape some sections of the description
771                # twice. They will be escaped once here, and then once when written by XML::Simple. They are
772                # unescaped once when processed by the RSS reader, and stuff in the description is treated as
773                # HTML. So, anything escaped here is treated as a literal when viewed in the RSS reader, but
774                # our <br>s and <pre>s are used to format the description.
775                $recap = (defined $recap ? "<em>" . CGI::escapeHTML($recap) . "</em><br /><br />" : "");
776                my $description = "$recap$environment  $stackTrace";
777                # Okay, we have all the pieces. Create a hash of the new event.
778                my $newItem = { title => $title,
779                                description => $description,
780                                category => $LastCategory,
781                                pubDate => $date,
782                                guid => $guid,
783                               };
784                # We need XML capability for this.
785                require XML::Simple;
786                # The RSS document goes in here.
787                my $rss;
788                # Get the name of the RSS file. It's in the FIG temporary directory.
789                my $fileName = "$FIG_Config::temp/$FIG_Config::error_feed";
790                # Does it exist?
791                if (-s $fileName) {
792                    # Slurp it in.
793                    $rss = XML::Simple::XMLin($fileName, ForceArray => ['item']);
794                } else {
795                    my $size = -s $fileName;
796                    # Create an empty channel.
797                    $rss = {
798                        channel => {
799                            title => 'NMPDR Warning Feed',
800                            link => "$FIG_Config::temp_url/$FIG_Config::error_feed",
801                            description => "Important messages regarding the status of the NMPDR.",
802                            generator => "NMPDR Trace Facility",
803                            docs => "http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss",
804                            item => []
805                        },
806                    };
807                }
808                # Get the channel object.
809                my $channel = $rss->{channel};
810                # Update the last-build date.
811                $channel->{lastBuildDate} = $date;
812                # Get the item array.
813                my $items = $channel->{item};
814                # Insure it has only 100 entries.
815                while (scalar @{$items} > 100) {
816                    pop @{$items};
817                }
818                # Add our new item at the front.
819                unshift @{$items}, $newItem;
820                # Create the XML. Note we do not include the root or the declaration. XML Simple can't handle
821                # the requirements for those.
822                my $xml = XML::Simple::XMLout($rss, NoAttr => 1, RootName => undef, XmlDecl => '');
823                # Here we put in the root and declaration. The problem is that the root has to have the version attribute
824                # in it. So, we suppress the root and do it by hand, and that requires suppressing the declaration, too.
825                $xml = "<?xml version=\"1.0\" encoding=\"utf-8\"?>\n<rss version=\"2.0\">$xml\n</rss>";
826                # We don't use Open here because we can't afford an error.
827                if (open XMLOUT, ">$fileName") {
828                    print XMLOUT $xml;
829                    close XMLOUT;
830                }
831            }
832        };
833        if ($@) {
834            # If the feed failed, we need to know why. The error will be traced, but this method will not be involved
835            # (which is a good thing).
836            my $error = $@;
837            Trace("Feed Error: $error") if T(Feed => 0);
838        }
839    }
840    
841  Error message to use if the open fails. If omitted, a standard error message  =head3 Assert
 will be generated. In either case, the error information from the file system  
 is appended to the message. To specify a conditional open that does not throw  
 an error if it fails, use C<0>.  
842    
843  =item RETURN      Assert($condition1, $condition2, ... $conditionN);
844    
845  Returns the name of the file handle assigned to the file, or C<undef> if the  Return TRUE if all the conditions are true. This method can be used in conjunction with
846  open failed.  the OR operator and the L</Confess> method as a debugging assert.
847    So, for example
848    
849  =back      Assert($recNum >= 0) || Confess("Invalid record number $recNum.");
850    
851  =cut  Will abort the program with a stack trace if the value of C<$recNum> is negative.
852    
853  sub Open {  =cut
854      # Get the parameters.  sub Assert {
855      my ($fileHandle, $fileSpec, $message) = @_;      my $retVal = 1;
856      # Attempt to open the file.      LOOP: for my $condition (@_) {
857      my $rv = open $fileHandle, $fileSpec;          if (! $condition) {
858      # If the open failed, generate an error message.              $retVal = 0;
859      if (! $rv) {              last LOOP;
         # Save the system error message.  
         my $sysMessage = $!;  
         # See if we need a default message.  
         if (!$message) {  
             # Clean any obvious mode characters and leading spaces from the  
             # filename.  
             my ($fileName) = FindNamePart($fileSpec);  
             $message = "Could not open \"$fileName\"";  
860          }          }
         # Terminate with an error using the supplied message and the  
         # error message from the file system.  
         Confess("$message: $!");  
861      }      }
862      # Return the file handle.      return $retVal;
     return $fileHandle;  
863  }  }
864    
865  =head3 FindNamePart  =head3 Cluck
   
 C<< my ($fileName, $start, $len) = Tracer::FindNamePart($fileSpec); >>  
866    
867  Extract the portion of a file specification that contains the file name.      Cluck($message);
868    
869  A file specification is the string passed to an C<open> call. It specifies the file  Trace the call stack. Note that for best results, you should qualify the call with a
870  mode and name. In a truly complex situation, it can specify a pipe sequence. This  trace condition. For example,
 method assumes that the file name is whatever follows the first angle bracket  
 sequence.  So, for example, in the following strings the file name is  
 C</usr/fig/myfile.txt>.  
871    
872      >>/usr/fig/myfile.txt      Cluck("Starting record parse.") if T(3);
     </usr/fig/myfile.txt  
     | sort -u > /usr/fig/myfile.txt  
873    
874  If the method cannot find a file name using its normal methods, it will return the  will only trace the stack if the trace level for the package is 3 or more.
 whole incoming string.  
875    
876  =over 4  =over 4
877    
878  =item fileSpec  =item message
879    
880  File specification string from which the file name is to be extracted.  Message to include in the trace.
881    
882    =back
883    
884    =cut
885    
886    sub Cluck {
887        # Get the parameters.
888        my ($message) = @_;
889        # Trace what's happening.
890        Trace("Stack trace for event: $message");
891        # Get the stack trace.
892        my @trace = LongMess();
893        # Convert the trace to a series of messages.
894        for my $line (@trace) {
895            # Replace the tab at the beginning with spaces.
896            $line =~ s/^\t/    /;
897            # Trace the line.
898            Trace($line);
899        }
900        # Issue a warning. This displays the event message and inserts it into the RSS error feed.
901        Warn($message);
902    }
903    
904    =head3 LongMess
905    
906        my @lines = Tracer::LongMess();
907    
908    Return a stack trace with all tracing methods removed. The return will be in the form of a list
909    of message strings.
910    
911    =cut
912    
913    sub LongMess {
914        # Declare the return variable.
915        my @retVal = ();
916        my $confession = longmess("");
917        for my $line (split /\s*\n/, $confession) {
918            unless ($line =~ /Tracer\.pm/) {
919                # Here we have a line worth keeping. Push it onto the result list.
920                push @retVal, $line;
921            }
922        }
923        # Return the result.
924        return @retVal;
925    }
926    
927    =head3 ETracing
928    
929        ETracing($parameter);
930    
931    Set up emergency tracing. Emergency tracing is tracing that is turned
932    on automatically for any program that calls this method. The emergency
933    tracing parameters are stored in a a file identified by a tracing key.
934    If this method is called with a CGI object, then the tracing key is
935    taken from a cookie. If it is called with no parameters, then the tracing
936    key is taken from an environment variable. If it is called with a string,
937    the tracing key is that string.
938    
939    =over 4
940    
941    =item parameter
942    
943    A parameter from which the tracing key is computed. If it is a scalar,
944    that scalar is used as the tracing key. If it is a CGI object, the
945    tracing key is taken from the C<IP> cookie. If it is omitted, the
946    tracing key is taken from the C<TRACING> environment variable. If it
947    is a CGI object and emergency tracing is not on, the C<Trace> and
948    C<TF> parameters will be used to determine the type of tracing.
949    
950    =back
951    
952    =cut
953    
954    sub ETracing {
955        # Get the parameter.
956        my ($parameter) = @_;
957        # Check for CGI mode.
958        if (defined $parameter && ref $parameter eq 'CGI') {
959            $SavedCGI = $parameter;
960        } else {
961            $SavedCGI = undef;
962        }
963        # Default to no tracing except errors.
964        my ($tracing, $dest) = ("0", "WARN");
965        # Check for emergency tracing.
966        my $tkey = EmergencyKey($parameter);
967        my $emergencyFile = EmergencyFileName($tkey);
968        if (-e $emergencyFile) {
969            # We have the file. Read in the data.
970            my @tracing = GetFile($emergencyFile);
971            # Pull off the time limit.
972            my $expire = shift @tracing;
973            # Convert it to seconds.
974            $expire *= 3600;
975            # Check the file data.
976            my $stat = stat($emergencyFile);
977            my ($now) = gettimeofday;
978            if ($now - $stat->mtime > $expire) {
979                # Delete the expired file.
980                unlink $emergencyFile;
981            } else {
982                # Emergency tracing is on. Pull off the destination and
983                # the trace level;
984                $dest = shift @tracing;
985                my $level = shift @tracing;
986                # Convert the destination to a real tracing destination.
987                # temp directory.
988                $dest = EmergencyTracingDest($tkey, $dest);
989                # Insure Tracer is specified.
990                my %moduleHash = map { $_ => 1 } @tracing;
991                $moduleHash{Tracer} = 1;
992                # Set the trace parameter.
993                $tracing = join(" ", $level, sort keys %moduleHash);
994            }
995        } elsif (defined $SavedCGI) {
996            # There's no emergency tracing, but we have a CGI object, so check
997            # for tracing from the form parameters.
998            if ($SavedCGI->param('Trace')) {
999                # Here the user has requested tracing via a form.
1000                $dest = ($SavedCGI->param('TF') ? ">$FIG_Config::temp/Trace$$.log" : "QUEUE");
1001                $tracing = $SavedCGI->param('Trace') . " Tracer";
1002            }
1003        }
1004        # Setup the tracing we've determined from all the stuff above.
1005        TSetup($tracing, $dest);
1006        # Check to see if we're a web script.
1007        if (defined $SavedCGI) {
1008            # Yes we are. Trace the form and environment data.
1009            TraceParms($SavedCGI);
1010            # Check for RAW mode. In raw mode, we print a fake header so that we see everything
1011            # emitted by the script in its raw form.
1012            if (T(Raw => 3)) {
1013                print CGI::header(-type => 'text/plain', -tracing => 'Raw');
1014            }
1015        }
1016    }
1017    
1018    =head3 EmergencyFileName
1019    
1020        my $fileName = Tracer::EmergencyFileName($tkey);
1021    
1022    Return the emergency tracing file name. This is the file that specifies
1023    the tracing information.
1024    
1025    =over 4
1026    
1027    =item tkey
1028    
1029    Tracing key for the current program.
1030    
1031  =item RETURN  =item RETURN
1032    
1033  Returns a three-element list. The first element contains the file name portion of  Returns the name of the file to contain the emergency tracing information.
 the specified string, or the whole string if a file name cannot be found via normal  
 methods. The second element contains the start position of the file name portion and  
 the third element contains the length.  
1034    
1035  =back  =back
1036    
1037  =cut  =cut
1038  #: Return Type $;  
1039  sub FindNamePart {  sub EmergencyFileName {
1040      # Get the parameters.      # Get the parameters.
1041      my ($fileSpec) = @_;      my ($tkey) = @_;
1042      # Default to the whole input string.      # Compute the emergency tracing file name.
1043      my ($retVal, $pos, $len) = ($fileSpec, 0, length $fileSpec);      return "$FIG_Config::temp/Emergency$tkey.txt";
     # Parse out the file name if we can.  
     if ($fileSpec =~ m/(<|>>?)(.+?)(\s*)$/) {  
         $retVal = $2;  
         $len = length $retVal;  
         $pos = (length $fileSpec) - (length $3) - $len;  
     }  
     # Return the result.  
     return ($retVal, $pos, $len);  
1044  }  }
1045    
1046  =head3 OpenDir  =head3 EmergencyFileTarget
1047    
1048  C<< my @files = OpenDir($dirName, $filtered, $flag); >>      my $fileName = Tracer::EmergencyFileTarget($tkey);
1049    
1050  Open a directory and return all the file names. This function essentially performs  Return the emergency tracing target file name. This is the file that receives
1051  the functions of an C<opendir> and C<readdir>. If the I<$filtered> parameter is  the tracing output for file-based tracing.
 set to TRUE, all filenames beginning with a period (C<.>), dollar sign (C<$>),  
 or pound sign (C<#>) and all filenames ending with a tilde C<~>) will be  
 filtered out of the return list. If the directory does not open and I<$flag> is not  
 set, an exception is thrown. So, for example,  
1052    
1053      my @files = OpenDir("/Volumes/fig/contigs", 1);  =over 4
1054    
1055  is effectively the same as  =item tkey
1056    
1057      opendir(TMP, "/Volumes/fig/contigs") || Confess("Could not open /Volumes/fig/contigs.");  Tracing key for the current program.
     my @files = grep { $_ !~ /^[\.\$\#]/ && $_ !~ /~$/ } readdir(TMP);  
1058    
1059  Similarly, the following code  =item RETURN
1060    
1061      my @files = grep { $_ =~ /^\d/ } OpenDir("/Volumes/fig/orgs", 0, 1);  Returns the name of the file to contain the trace output.
1062    
1063  Returns the names of all files in C</Volumes/fig/orgs> that begin with digits and  =back
1064  automatically returns an empty list if the directory fails to open.  
1065    =cut
1066    
1067    sub EmergencyFileTarget {
1068        # Get the parameters.
1069        my ($tkey) = @_;
1070        # Compute the emergency tracing file name.
1071        return "$FIG_Config::temp/trace$tkey.log";
1072    }
1073    
1074    =head3 EmergencyTracingDest
1075    
1076        my $dest = Tracer::EmergencyTracingDest($tkey, $myDest);
1077    
1078    This method converts an emergency tracing destination to a real
1079    tracing destination. The main difference is that if the
1080    destination is C<FILE> or C<APPEND>, we convert it to file
1081    output. If the destination is C<DUAL>, we convert it to file
1082    and standard output.
1083    
1084  =over 4  =over 4
1085    
1086  =item dirName  =item tkey
1087    
1088  Name of the directory to open.  Tracing key for this environment.
1089    
1090  =item filtered  =item myDest
1091    
1092  TRUE if files whose names begin with a period (C<.>) should be automatically removed  Destination from the emergency tracing file.
 from the list, else FALSE.  
1093    
1094  =item flag  =item RETURN
1095    
1096  TRUE if a failure to open is okay, else FALSE  Returns a destination that can be passed into L</TSetup>.
1097    
1098  =back  =back
1099    
1100  =cut  =cut
1101  #: Return Type @;  
1102  sub OpenDir {  sub EmergencyTracingDest {
1103      # Get the parameters.      # Get the parameters.
1104      my ($dirName, $filtered, $flag) = @_;      my ($tkey, $myDest) = @_;
1105      # Declare the return variable.      # Declare the return variable.
1106      my @retVal = ();      my $retVal = $myDest;
1107      # Open the directory.      # Process according to the destination value.
1108      if (opendir(my $dirHandle, $dirName)) {      if ($myDest eq 'FILE') {
1109          # The directory opened successfully. Get the appropriate list according to the          $retVal = ">" . EmergencyFileTarget($tkey);
1110          # strictures of the filter parameter.      } elsif ($myDest eq 'APPEND') {
1111          if ($filtered) {          $retVal = ">>" . EmergencyFileTarget($tkey);
1112              @retVal = grep { $_ !~ /^[\.\$\#]/ && $_ !~ /~$/ } readdir $dirHandle;      } elsif ($myDest eq 'DUAL') {
1113          } else {          $retVal = "+>" . EmergencyFileTarget($tkey);
1114              @retVal = readdir $dirHandle;      } elsif ($myDest eq 'WARN') {
1115          }          $retVal = "WARN";
     } elsif (! $flag) {  
         # Here the directory would not open and it's considered an error.  
         Confess("Could not open directory $dirName.");  
1116      }      }
1117      # Return the result.      # Return the result.
1118      return @retVal;      return $retVal;
1119  }  }
1120    
1121  =head3 SetLevel  =head3 Emergency
1122    
1123  C<< Tracer::SetLevel($newLevel); >>      Emergency($key, $hours, $dest, $level, @modules);
1124    
1125  Modify the trace level. A higher trace level will cause more messages to appear.  Turn on emergency tracing. This method is normally invoked over the web from
1126    a debugging console, but it can also be called by the C<trace.pl> script.
1127    The caller specifies the duration of the emergency in hours, the desired tracing
1128    destination, the trace level, and a list of the trace modules to activate.
1129    For the length of the duration, when a program in an environment with the
1130    specified tracing key active invokes a Sprout CGI script, tracing will be
1131    turned on automatically. See L</TSetup> for more about tracing setup and
1132    L</ETracing> for more about emergency tracing.
1133    
1134  =over 4  =over 4
1135    
1136  =item newLevel  =item tkey
1137    
1138  Proposed new trace level.  The tracing key. This is used to identify the control file and the trace file.
1139    
1140    =item hours
1141    
1142    Number of hours to keep emergency tracing alive.
1143    
1144    =item dest
1145    
1146    Tracing destination. If no path information is specified for a file
1147    destination, it is put in the FIG temporary directory.
1148    
1149    =item level
1150    
1151    Tracing level. A higher level means more trace messages.
1152    
1153    =item modules
1154    
1155    A list of the tracing modules to activate.
1156    
1157  =back  =back
1158    
1159  =cut  =cut
1160    
1161  sub SetLevel {  sub Emergency {
1162      $TraceLevel = $_[0];      # Get the parameters.
1163        my ($tkey, $hours, $dest, $level, @modules) = @_;
1164        # Create the emergency file.
1165        my $specFile = EmergencyFileName($tkey);
1166        my $outHandle = Open(undef, ">$specFile");
1167        print $outHandle join("\n", $hours, $dest, $level, @modules, "");
1168  }  }
1169    
1170  =head3 Now  =head3 EmergencyKey
1171    
1172        my $tkey = EmergencyKey($parameter);
1173    
1174    Return the Key to be used for emergency tracing. This could be an IP address,
1175     a session ID, or a user name, depending on the environment.
1176    
1177    =over 4
1178    
1179  C<< my $string = Tracer::Now(); >>  =item parameter
1180    
1181  Return a displayable time stamp containing the local time.  Parameter defining the method for finding the tracing key. If it is a scalar,
1182    then it is presumed to be the tracing key itself. If it is a CGI object, then
1183    the tracing key is taken from the C<IP> cookie. Otherwise, the tracing key is
1184    taken from the C<TRACING> environment variable.
1185    
1186    =item RETURN
1187    
1188    Returns the key to be used for labels in emergency tracing.
1189    
1190    =back
1191    
1192  =cut  =cut
1193    
1194  sub Now {  sub EmergencyKey {
1195      my ($sec,$min,$hour,$mday,$mon,$year,$wday,$yday,$isdst) = localtime(time);      # Get the parameters.
1196      my $retVal = _p2($mon+1) . "/" . _p2($mday) . "/" . ($year + 1900) . " " .      my ($parameter) = @_;
1197                   _p2($hour) . ":" . _p2($min) . ":" . _p2($sec);      # Declare the return variable.
1198        my $retVal;
1199        # Determine the parameter type.
1200        if (! defined $parameter) {
1201            # Here we're supposed to check the environment. If that fails, we
1202            # get the effective login ID.
1203            $retVal = $ENV{TRACING} || scalar getpwuid($<);
1204        } else {
1205            my $ptype = ref $parameter;
1206            if ($ptype eq 'CGI') {
1207                # Here we were invoked from a web page. Look for a cookie.
1208                $retVal = $parameter->cookie('IP');
1209            } elsif (! $ptype) {
1210                # Here the key was passed in.
1211                $retVal = $parameter;
1212            }
1213        }
1214        # If no luck finding a key, use the PID.
1215        if (! defined $retVal) {
1216            $retVal = $$;
1217        }
1218        # Return the result.
1219      return $retVal;      return $retVal;
1220  }  }
1221    
1222  # Pad a number to 2 digits.  
1223  sub _p2 {  =head3 TraceParms
1224      my ($value) = @_;  
1225      $value = "0$value" if ($value < 10);      Tracer::TraceParms($cgi);
1226      return $value;  
1227    Trace the CGI parameters at trace level CGI => 3 and the environment variables
1228    at level CGI => 4. A self-referencing URL is traced at level CGI => 2.
1229    
1230    =over 4
1231    
1232    =item cgi
1233    
1234    CGI query object containing the parameters to trace.
1235    
1236    =back
1237    
1238    =cut
1239    
1240    sub TraceParms {
1241        # Get the parameters.
1242        my ($cgi) = @_;
1243        if (T(CGI => 2)) {
1244            # Here we trace the GET-style URL for the script.
1245            Trace("[URL] " . $cgi->url(-relative => 1, -query => 1));
1246        }
1247        if (T(CGI => 3)) {
1248            # Here we want to trace the parameter data.
1249            my @names = $cgi->param;
1250            for my $parmName (sort @names) {
1251                # Note we skip the Trace parameters, which are for our use only.
1252                if ($parmName ne 'Trace' && $parmName ne 'TF') {
1253                    my @values = $cgi->param($parmName);
1254                    Trace("[CGI] $parmName = " . join(", ", @values));
1255                }
1256            }
1257            # Display the request method.
1258            my $method = $cgi->request_method();
1259            Trace("Method: $method");
1260        }
1261        if (T(CGI => 4)) {
1262            # Here we want the environment data too.
1263            for my $envName (sort keys %ENV) {
1264                Trace("[ENV] $envName = $ENV{$envName}");
1265            }
1266        }
1267    }
1268    
1269    =head3 TraceImages
1270    
1271        Tracer::TraceImages($htmlString);
1272    
1273    Trace information about all of an html document's images. The tracing
1274    will be for type "IMG" at level 3. The image's source string
1275    will be displayed. This is generally either the URL of the image or
1276    raw data for the image itself. If the source is too long, only the first 300
1277    characters will be shown at trace level 3. The entire source will be shown,
1278    however, at trace level 4. This method is not very smart, and might catch
1279    Javascript code, but it is still useful when debugging the arcane
1280    behavior of images in multiple browser environments.
1281    
1282    =over 4
1283    
1284    =item htmlString
1285    
1286    HTML text for an outgoing web page.
1287    
1288    =back
1289    
1290    =cut
1291    
1292    sub TraceImages {
1293        # Only proceed if we're at the proper trace level.
1294        if (T(IMG => 3)) {
1295            # For performance reasons we're manipulating $_[0] instead of retrieving the string
1296            # into a variable called "$htmlString". This is because we expect html strings to be
1297            # long, and don't want to copy them any more than we have to.
1298            Trace(length($_[0]) . " characters in web page.");
1299            # Loop through the HTML, culling image tags.
1300            while ($_[0] =~ /<img\s+[^>]+?src="([^"]+)"/sgi) {
1301                # Extract the source string and determine whether or not it's too long.
1302                my $srcString = $1;
1303                my $pos = pos($_[0]) - length($srcString);
1304                my $excess = length($srcString) - 300;
1305                # We'll put the display string in here.
1306                my $srcDisplay = $srcString;
1307                # If it's a data string, split it at the comma.
1308                $srcDisplay =~ s/^(data[^,]+,)/$1\n/;
1309                # If there's no excess or we're at trace level 4, we're done. At level 3 with
1310                # a long string, however, we only show the first 300 characters.
1311                if ($excess > 0 && ! T(IMG => 4)) {
1312                    $srcDisplay = substr($srcDisplay,0,300) . "\nplus $excess characters.";
1313                }
1314                # Output the trace message.
1315                Trace("Image tag at position $pos:\n$srcDisplay");
1316            }
1317  }  }
1318    }
1319    
1320    =head2 Command-Line Utility Methods
1321    
1322    =head3 SendSMS
1323    
1324        my $msgID = Tracer::SendSMS($phoneNumber, $msg);
1325    
1326    Send a text message to a phone number using Clickatell. The FIG_Config file must contain the
1327    user name, password, and API ID for the relevant account in the hash reference variable
1328    I<$FIG_Config::phone>, using the keys C<user>, C<password>, and C<api_id>. For
1329    example, if the user name is C<BruceTheHumanPet>, the password is C<silly>, and the API ID
1330    is C<2561022>, then the FIG_Config file must contain
1331    
1332        $phone =  { user => 'BruceTheHumanPet',
1333                    password => 'silly',
1334                    api_id => '2561022' };
1335    
1336    The original purpose of this method was to insure Bruce would be notified immediately when the
1337    Sprout Load terminates. Care should be taken if you do not wish Bruce to be notified immediately
1338    when you call this method.
1339    
1340    The message ID will be returned if successful, and C<undef> if an error occurs.
1341    
1342    =over 4
1343    
1344    =item phoneNumber
1345    
1346    Phone number to receive the message, in international format. A United States phone number
1347    would be prefixed by "1". A British phone number would be prefixed by "44".
1348    
1349    =item msg
1350    
1351    Message to send to the specified phone.
1352    
1353    =item RETURN
1354    
1355    Returns the message ID if successful, and C<undef> if the message could not be sent.
1356    
1357    =back
1358    
1359    =cut
1360    
1361    sub SendSMS {
1362        # Get the parameters.
1363        my ($phoneNumber, $msg) = @_;
1364        # Declare the return variable. If we do not change it, C<undef> will be returned.
1365        my $retVal;
1366        # Only proceed if we have phone support.
1367        if (! defined $FIG_Config::phone) {
1368            Trace("Phone support not present in FIG_Config.") if T(1);
1369        } else {
1370            # Get the phone data.
1371            my $parms = $FIG_Config::phone;
1372            # Get the Clickatell URL.
1373            my $url = "http://api.clickatell.com/http/";
1374            # Create the user agent.
1375            my $ua = LWP::UserAgent->new;
1376            # Request a Clickatell session.
1377            my $resp = $ua->post("$url/sendmsg", { user => $parms->{user},
1378                                         password => $parms->{password},
1379                                         api_id => $parms->{api_id},
1380                                         to => $phoneNumber,
1381                                         text => $msg});
1382            # Check for an error.
1383            if (! $resp->is_success) {
1384                Trace("Alert failed.") if T(1);
1385            } else {
1386                # Get the message ID.
1387                my $rstring = $resp->content;
1388                if ($rstring =~ /^ID:\s+(.*)$/) {
1389                    $retVal = $1;
1390                } else {
1391                    Trace("Phone attempt failed with $rstring") if T(1);
1392                }
1393            }
1394        }
1395        # Return the result.
1396        return $retVal;
1397    }
1398    
1399    =head3 StandardSetup
1400    
1401        my ($options, @parameters) = StandardSetup(\@categories, \%options, $parmHelp, @ARGV);
1402    
1403    This method performs standard command-line parsing and tracing setup. The return
1404    values are a hash of the command-line options and a list of the positional
1405    parameters. Tracing is automatically set up and the command-line options are
1406    validated.
1407    
1408    This is a complex method that does a lot of grunt work. The parameters can
1409    be more easily understood, however, once they are examined individually.
1410    
1411    The I<categories> parameter is the most obtuse. It is a reference to a list of
1412    special-purpose tracing categories. Most tracing categories are PERL package
1413    names. So, for example, if you wanted to turn on tracing inside the B<Sprout>,
1414    B<ERDB>, and B<SproutLoad> packages, you would specify the categories
1415    
1416        ["Sprout", "SproutLoad", "ERDB"]
1417    
1418    This would cause trace messages in the specified three packages to appear in
1419    the output. There are two special tracing categories that are automatically
1420    handled by this method. In other words, if you used L</TSetup> you would need
1421    to include these categories manually, but if you use this method they are turned
1422    on automatically.
1423    
1424    =over 4
1425    
1426    =item SQL
1427    
1428    Traces SQL commands and activity.
1429    
1430    =item Tracer
1431    
1432    Traces error messages and call stacks.
1433    
1434    =back
1435    
1436    C<SQL> is only turned on if the C<-sql> option is specified in the command line.
1437    The trace level is specified using the C<-trace> command-line option. For example,
1438    the following command line for C<TransactFeatures> turns on SQL tracing and runs
1439    all tracing at level 3.
1440    
1441        TransactFeatures -trace=3 -sql register ../xacts IDs.tbl
1442    
1443    Standard tracing is output to the standard output and echoed to the file
1444    C<trace>I<$$>C<.log> in the FIG temporary directory, where I<$$> is the
1445    process ID. You can also specify the C<user> parameter to put a user ID
1446    instead of a process ID in the trace file name. So, for example
1447    
1448    The default trace level is 2. To get all messages, specify a trace level of 4.
1449    For a genome-by-genome update, use 3.
1450    
1451        TransactFeatures -trace=3 -sql -user=Bruce register ../xacts IDs.tbl
1452    
1453    would send the trace output to C<traceBruce.log> in the temporary directory.
1454    
1455    The I<options> parameter is a reference to a hash containing the command-line
1456    options, their default values, and an explanation of what they mean. Command-line
1457    options may be in the form of switches or keywords. In the case of a switch, the
1458    option value is 1 if it is specified and 0 if it is not specified. In the case
1459    of a keyword, the value is separated from the option name by an equal sign. You
1460    can see this last in the command-line example above.
1461    
1462    You can specify a different default trace level by setting C<$options->{trace}>
1463    prior to calling this method.
1464    
1465    An example at this point would help. Consider, for example, the command-line utility
1466    C<TransactFeatures>. It accepts a list of positional parameters plus the options
1467    C<safe>, C<noAlias>, C<start>, and C<tblFiles>. To start up this command, we execute
1468    the following code.
1469    
1470        my ($options, @parameters) = Tracer::StandardSetup(["DocUtils"],
1471                            { safe => [0, "use database transactions"],
1472                              noAlias => [0, "do not expect aliases in CHANGE transactions"],
1473                              start => [' ', "start with this genome"],
1474                              tblFiles => [0, "output TBL files containing the corrected IDs"] },
1475                            "<command> <transactionDirectory> <IDfile>",
1476                          @ARGV);
1477    
1478    
1479    The call to C<ParseCommand> specifies the default values for the options and
1480    stores the actual options in a hash that is returned as C<$options>. The
1481    positional parameters are returned in C<@parameters>.
1482    
1483    The following is a sample command line for C<TransactFeatures>.
1484    
1485        TransactFeatures -trace=2 -noAlias register ../xacts IDs.tbl
1486    
1487    Single and double hyphens are equivalent. So, you could also code the
1488    above command as
1489    
1490        TransactFeatures --trace=2 --noAlias register ../xacts IDs.tbl
1491    
1492    In this case, C<register>, C<../xacts>, and C<IDs.tbl> are the positional
1493    parameters, and would find themselves in I<@parameters> after executing the
1494    above code fragment. The tracing would be set to level 2, and the categories
1495    would be C<Tracer>, and <DocUtils>. C<Tracer> is standard,
1496    and C<DocUtils> was included because it came in within the first parameter
1497    to this method. The I<$options> hash would be
1498    
1499        { trace => 2, sql => 0, safe => 0,
1500          noAlias => 1, start => ' ', tblFiles => 0 }
1501    
1502    Use of C<StandardSetup> in this way provides a simple way of performing
1503    standard tracing setup and command-line parsing. Note that the caller is
1504    not even aware of the command-line switches C<-trace> and C<-sql>, which
1505    are used by this method to control the tracing. If additional tracing features
1506    need to be added in the future, they can be processed by this method without
1507    upsetting the command-line utilities.
1508    
1509    If the C<background> option is specified on the command line, then the
1510    standard and error outputs will be directed to files in the temporary
1511    directory, using the same suffix as the trace file. So, if the command
1512    line specified
1513    
1514        -user=Bruce -background
1515    
1516    then the trace output would go to C<traceBruce.log>, the standard output to
1517    C<outBruce.log>, and the error output to C<errBruce.log>. This is designed to
1518    simplify starting a command in the background.
1519    
1520    The user name is also used as the tracing key for L</Emergency Tracing>.
1521    Specifying a value of C<E> for the trace level causes emergency tracing to
1522    be used instead of custom tracing. If the user name is not specified,
1523    the tracing key is taken from the C<Tracing> environment variable. If there
1524    is no value for that variable, the tracing key will be computed from the active
1525    login ID.
1526    
1527    Since the default situation in StandardSetup is to trace to the standard
1528    output, errors that occur in command-line scripts will not generate
1529    RSS events. To force the events, use the C<warn> option.
1530    
1531        TransactFeatures -background -warn register ../xacts IDs.tbl
1532    
1533    Finally, if the special option C<-help> is specified, the option
1534    names will be traced at level 0 and the program will exit without processing.
1535    This provides a limited help capability. For example, if the user enters
1536    
1537        TransactFeatures -help
1538    
1539    he would see the following output.
1540    
1541        TransactFeatures [options] <command> <transactionDirectory> <IDfile>
1542            -trace    tracing level (default E)
1543            -sql      trace SQL commands
1544            -safe     use database transactions
1545            -noAlias  do not expect aliases in CHANGE transactions
1546            -start    start with this genome
1547            -tblFiles output TBL files containing the corrected IDs
1548    
1549    The caller has the option of modifying the tracing scheme by placing a value
1550    for C<trace> in the incoming options hash. The default value can be overridden,
1551    or the tracing to the standard output can be turned off by suffixing a minus
1552    sign to the trace level. So, for example,
1553    
1554        { trace => [0, "tracing level (default 0)"],
1555           ...
1556    
1557    would set the default trace level to 0 instead of E, while
1558    
1559        { trace => ["2-", "tracing level (default 2)"],
1560           ...
1561    
1562    would set the default to 2, but trace only to the log file, not to the
1563    standard output.
1564    
1565    The parameters to this method are as follows.
1566    
1567    =over 4
1568    
1569    =item categories
1570    
1571    Reference to a list of tracing category names. These should be names of
1572    packages whose internal workings will need to be debugged to get the
1573    command working.
1574    
1575    =item options
1576    
1577    Reference to a hash containing the legal options for the current command mapped
1578    to their default values and descriptions. The user can override the defaults
1579    by specifying the options as command-line switches prefixed by a hyphen.
1580    Tracing-related options may be added to this hash. If the C<-h> option is
1581    specified on the command line, the option descriptions will be used to
1582    explain the options. To turn off tracing to the standard output, add a
1583    minus sign to the value for C<trace> (see above).
1584    
1585  =head3 LogErrors  =item parmHelp
1586    
1587  C<< Tracer::LogErrors($fileName); >>  A string that vaguely describes the positional parameters. This is used
1588    if the user specifies the C<-h> option.
1589    
1590  Route the standard error output to a log file.  =item argv
1591    
1592  =over 4  List of command line parameters, including the option switches, which must
1593    precede the positional parameters and be prefixed by a hyphen.
1594    
1595  =item fileName  =item RETURN
1596    
1597  Name of the file to receive the error output.  Returns a list. The first element of the list is the reference to a hash that
1598    maps the command-line option switches to their values. These will either be the
1599    default values or overrides specified on the command line. The remaining
1600    elements of the list are the position parameters, in order.
1601    
1602  =back  =back
1603    
1604  =cut  =cut
1605    
1606  sub LogErrors {  sub StandardSetup {
1607      # Get the file name.      # Get the parameters.
1608      my ($fileName) = @_;      my ($categories, $options, $parmHelp, @argv) = @_;
1609      # Open the file as the standard error output.      # Get the default tracing key.
1610      open STDERR, '>', $fileName;      my $tkey = EmergencyKey();
1611        # Save the command line.
1612        $CommandLine = join(" ", $0, map { $_ =~ /\s/ ? "\"$_\"" : $_ } @argv);
1613        # Add the tracing options.
1614        if (! exists $options->{trace}) {
1615            $options->{trace} = ['2', "tracing level (E for emergency tracing)"];
1616        }
1617        $options->{sql} = [0, "turn on SQL tracing"];
1618        $options->{help} = [0, "display command-line options"];
1619        $options->{user} = [$tkey, "tracing key"];
1620        $options->{background} = [0, "spool standard and error output"];
1621        $options->{warn} = [0, "send errors to RSS feed"];
1622        # Create a parsing hash from the options hash. The parsing hash
1623        # contains the default values rather than the default value
1624        # and the description. While we're at it, we'll memorize the
1625        # length of the longest option name.
1626        my $longestName = 0;
1627        my %parseOptions = ();
1628        for my $key (keys %{$options}) {
1629            if (length $key > $longestName) {
1630                $longestName = length $key;
1631            }
1632            $parseOptions{$key} = $options->{$key}->[0];
1633        }
1634        # Parse the command line.
1635        my ($retOptions, @retParameters) = ParseCommand(\%parseOptions, @argv);
1636        # Get the logfile suffix.
1637        my $suffix = $retOptions->{user};
1638        # Check for background mode.
1639        if ($retOptions->{background}) {
1640            my $outFileName = "$FIG_Config::temp/out$suffix.log";
1641            my $errFileName = "$FIG_Config::temp/err$suffix.log";
1642            open STDOUT, ">$outFileName";
1643            open STDERR, ">$errFileName";
1644            # Check for phone support. If we have phone support and a phone number,
1645            # we want to turn it on.
1646            if ($ENV{PHONE} && defined($FIG_Config::phone)) {
1647                $retOptions->{phone} = $ENV{PHONE};
1648            }
1649        }
1650        # Now we want to set up tracing. First, we need to know if the user
1651        # wants emergency tracing.
1652        if ($retOptions->{trace} eq 'E') {
1653            ETracing($retOptions->{user});
1654        } else {
1655            # Here the tracing is controlled from the command line.
1656            my @cats = @{$categories};
1657            if ($retOptions->{sql}) {
1658                push @cats, "SQL";
1659            }
1660            if ($retOptions->{warn}) {
1661                push @cats, "Feed";
1662            }
1663            # Add the default categories.
1664            push @cats, "Tracer";
1665            # Next, we create the category string by joining the categories.
1666            my $cats = join(" ", @cats);
1667            # Check to determine whether or not the caller wants to turn off tracing
1668            # to the standard output.
1669            my $traceLevel = $retOptions->{trace};
1670            my $textOKFlag = 1;
1671            if ($traceLevel =~ /^(.)-/) {
1672                $traceLevel = $1;
1673                $textOKFlag = 0;
1674            }
1675            # Now we set up the trace mode.
1676            my $traceMode;
1677            # Verify that we can open a file in the FIG temporary directory.
1678            my $traceFileName = "$FIG_Config::temp/trace$suffix.log";
1679            if (open TESTTRACE, ">$traceFileName") {
1680                # Here we can trace to a file.
1681                $traceMode = ">$traceFileName";
1682                if ($textOKFlag) {
1683                    # Echo to standard output if the text-OK flag is set.
1684                    $traceMode = "+$traceMode";
1685                }
1686                # Close the test file.
1687                close TESTTRACE;
1688            } else {
1689                # Here we can't trace to a file. Complain about this.
1690                warn "Could not open trace file $traceFileName: $!\n";
1691                # We trace to the standard output if it's
1692                # okay, and the error log otherwise.
1693                if ($textOKFlag) {
1694                    $traceMode = "TEXT";
1695                } else {
1696                    $traceMode = "WARN";
1697                }
1698            }
1699            # Now set up the tracing.
1700            TSetup("$traceLevel $cats", $traceMode);
1701        }
1702        # Check for the "help" option. If it is specified, dump the command-line
1703        # options and exit the program.
1704        if ($retOptions->{help}) {
1705            $0 =~ m#[/\\](\w+)(\.pl)?$#i;
1706            print "$1 [options] $parmHelp\n";
1707            for my $key (sort keys %{$options}) {
1708                my $name = Pad($key, $longestName, 0, ' ');
1709                my $desc = $options->{$key}->[1];
1710                if ($options->{$key}->[0]) {
1711                    $desc .= " (default " . $options->{$key}->[0] . ")";
1712                }
1713                print "  $name $desc\n";
1714            }
1715            exit(0);
1716        }
1717        # Trace the options, if applicable.
1718        if (T(3)) {
1719            my @parms = grep { $retOptions->{$_} } keys %{$retOptions};
1720            Trace("Selected options: " . join(", ", sort @parms) . ".");
1721        }
1722        # Return the parsed parameters.
1723        return ($retOptions, @retParameters);
1724  }  }
1725    
1726  =head3 ReadOptions  =head3 ReadOptions
1727    
1728  C<< my %options = Tracer::ReadOptions($fileName); >>      my %options = Tracer::ReadOptions($fileName);
1729    
1730  Read a set of options from a file. Each option is encoded in a line of text that has the  Read a set of options from a file. Each option is encoded in a line of text that has the
1731  format  format
# Line 853  Line 1786 
1786    
1787  =head3 GetOptions  =head3 GetOptions
1788    
1789  C<< Tracer::GetOptions(\%defaults, \%options); >>      Tracer::GetOptions(\%defaults, \%options);
1790    
1791  Merge a specified set of options into a table of defaults. This method takes two hash references  Merge a specified set of options into a table of defaults. This method takes two hash references
1792  as input and uses the data from the second to update the first. If the second does not exist,  as input and uses the data from the second to update the first. If the second does not exist,
# Line 862  Line 1795 
1795    
1796  Consider the following example.  Consider the following example.
1797    
1798  C<< my $optionTable = GetOptions({ dbType => 'mySQL', trace => 0 }, $options); >>      my $optionTable = GetOptions({ dbType => 'mySQL', trace => 0 }, $options);
1799    
1800  In this example, the variable B<$options> is expected to contain at most two options-- B<dbType> and  In this example, the variable B<$options> is expected to contain at most two options-- B<dbType> and
1801  B<trace>. The default database type is C<mySQL> and the default trace level is C<0>. If the value of  B<trace>. The default database type is C<mySQL> and the default trace level is C<0>. If the value of
# Line 870  Line 1803 
1803  the trace level will remain at 0. If B<$options> is undefined, then the database type and trace level  the trace level will remain at 0. If B<$options> is undefined, then the database type and trace level
1804  will remain C<mySQL> and C<0>. If, on the other hand, B<$options> is defined as  will remain C<mySQL> and C<0>. If, on the other hand, B<$options> is defined as
1805    
1806  C<< {databaseType => 'Oracle'} >>      {databaseType => 'Oracle'}
1807    
1808  an error will occur because the B<databaseType> option does not exist.  an error will occur because the B<databaseType> option does not exist.
1809    
# Line 914  Line 1847 
1847    
1848  =head3 MergeOptions  =head3 MergeOptions
1849    
1850  C<< Tracer::MergeOptions(\%table, \%defaults); >>      Tracer::MergeOptions(\%table, \%defaults);
1851    
1852  Merge default values into a hash table. This method looks at the key-value pairs in the  Merge default values into a hash table. This method looks at the key-value pairs in the
1853  second (default) hash, and if a matching key is not found in the first hash, the default  second (default) hash, and if a matching key is not found in the first hash, the default
# Line 946  Line 1879 
1879      }      }
1880  }  }
1881    
 =head3 Trace  
   
 C<< Trace($message); >>  
   
 Write a trace message to the target location specified in L</TSetup>. If there has not been  
 any prior call to B<TSetup>.  
   
 =over 4  
   
 =item message  
   
 Message to write.  
   
 =back  
   
 =cut  
   
 sub Trace {  
     # Get the parameters.  
     my ($message) = @_;  
     # Get the timestamp.  
     my $timeStamp = Now();  
     # Format the message. Note we strip off any line terminators at the end.  
     my $formatted = "$timeStamp <$LastCategory>: " . Strip($message);  
     # Process according to the destination.  
     if ($Destination eq "TEXT") {  
         # Write the message to the standard output.  
         print "$formatted\n";  
     } elsif ($Destination eq "ERROR") {  
         # Write the message to the error output.  
         print STDERR "$formatted\n";  
     } elsif ($Destination eq "QUEUE") {  
         # Push the message into the queue.  
         push @Queue, "$formatted";  
     } elsif ($Destination eq "HTML") {  
         # Convert the message to HTML and write it to the standard output.  
         my $escapedMessage = CGI::escapeHTML($message);  
         print "<p>$formatted</p>\n";  
     } elsif ($Destination eq "WARN") {  
        # Emit the message as a warning.  
        warn $message;  
     } elsif ($Destination =~ m/^>>/) {  
         # Write the trace message to an output file.  
         (open TRACING, $Destination) || die "Tracing open for \"$Destination\" failed: $!";  
         print TRACING "$formatted\n";  
         close TRACING;  
         # If the Tee flag is on, echo it to the standard output.  
         if ($TeeFlag) {  
             print "$formatted\n";  
         }  
     }  
 }  
   
 =head3 T  
   
 C<< my $switch = T($category, $traceLevel); >>  
   
     or  
   
 C<< my $switch = T($traceLevel); >>  
   
 Return TRUE if the trace level is at or above a specified value and the specified category  
 is active, else FALSE. If no category is specified, the caller's package name is used.  
   
 =over 4  
   
 =item category  
   
 Category to which the message belongs. If not specified, the caller's package name is  
 used.  
   
 =item traceLevel  
   
 Relevant tracing level.  
   
 =item RETURN  
   
 TRUE if a message at the specified trace level would appear in the trace, else FALSE.  
   
 =back  
   
 =cut  
   
 sub T {  
     # Declare the return variable.  
     my $retVal = 0;  
     # Only proceed if tracing is turned on.  
     if ($Destination ne "NONE") {  
         # Get the parameters.  
         my ($category, $traceLevel) = @_;  
         if (!defined $traceLevel) {  
             # Here we have no category, so we need to get the calling package.  
             # The calling package is normally the first parameter. If it is  
             # omitted, the first parameter will be the tracelevel. So, the  
             # first thing we do is shift the so-called category into the  
             # $traceLevel variable where it belongs.  
             $traceLevel = $category;  
             my ($package, $fileName, $line) = caller;  
             # If there is no calling package, we default to "main".  
             if (!$package) {  
                 $category = "main";  
             } else {  
                 $category = $package;  
             }  
         }  
         # Save the category name.  
         $LastCategory = $category;  
         # Convert it to lower case before we hash it.  
         $category = lc $category;  
         # Use the category and tracelevel to compute the result.  
         if (ref $traceLevel) {  
             Confess("Bad trace level.");  
         } elsif (ref $TraceLevel) {  
             Confess("Bad trace config.");  
         }  
         $retVal = ($traceLevel <= $TraceLevel && ($AllTrace || exists $Categories{$category}));  
     }  
     # Return the computed result.  
     return $retVal;  
 }  
   
1882  =head3 ParseCommand  =head3 ParseCommand
1883    
1884  C<< my ($options, @arguments) = Tracer::ParseCommand(\%optionTable, @inputList); >>      my ($options, @arguments) = Tracer::ParseCommand(\%optionTable, @inputList);
1885    
1886  Parse a command line consisting of a list of parameters. The initial parameters may be option  Parse a command line consisting of a list of parameters. The initial parameters may be option
1887  specifiers of the form C<->I<option> or C<->I<option>C<=>I<value>. The options are stripped  specifiers of the form C<->I<option> or C<->I<option>C<=>I<value>. The options are stripped
1888  off and merged into a table of default options. The remainder of the command line is  off and merged into a table of default options. The remainder of the command line is
1889  returned as a list of positional arguments. For example, consider the following invocation.  returned as a list of positional arguments. For example, consider the following invocation.
1890    
1891  C<< my ($options, @arguments) = ParseCommand({ errors => 0, logFile => 'trace.log'}, @words); >>      my ($options, @arguments) = ParseCommand({ errors => 0, logFile => 'trace.log'}, @words);
1892    
1893  In this case, the list @words will be treated as a command line. There are two options available,  In this case, the list @words will be treated as a command line and there are two options available,
1894  B<errors> and B<logFile>. If @words has the following format  B<errors> and B<logFile>. If @words has the following format
1895    
1896  C<< -logFile=error.log apple orange rutabaga >>      -logFile=error.log apple orange rutabaga
1897    
1898  then at the end of the invocation, C<$options> will be  then at the end of the invocation, C<$options> will be
1899    
1900  C<< { errors => 0, logFile => 'error.log' } >>      { errors => 0, logFile => 'error.log' }
1901    
1902  and C<@arguments> will contain  and C<@arguments> will contain
1903    
1904  C<< apple orange rutabaga >>      apple orange rutabaga
1905    
1906  The parser allows for some escape sequences. See L</UnEscape> for a description. There is no  The parser allows for some escape sequences. See L</UnEscape> for a description. There is no
1907  support for quote characters.  support for quote characters. Options can be specified with single or double hyphens.
1908    
1909  =over 4  =over 4
1910    
# Line 1117  Line 1929 
1929      my ($optionTable, @inputList) = @_;      my ($optionTable, @inputList) = @_;
1930      # Process any options in the input list.      # Process any options in the input list.
1931      my %overrides = ();      my %overrides = ();
1932      while ((@inputList > 0) && ($inputList[0] =~ /^-/)) {      while ((@inputList > 0) && ($inputList[0] =~ /^--?/)) {
1933          # Get the current option.          # Get the current option.
1934          my $arg = shift @inputList;          my $arg = shift @inputList;
1935          # Pull out the option name.          # Pull out the option name.
1936          $arg =~ /^-([^=]*)/g;          $arg =~ /^--?([^=]*)/g;
1937          my $name = $1;          my $name = $1;
1938          # Check for an option value.          # Check for an option value.
1939          if ($arg =~ /\G=(.*)$/g) {          if ($arg =~ /\G=(.*)$/g) {
# Line 1143  Line 1955 
1955      return ($optionTable, @retVal);      return ($optionTable, @retVal);
1956  }  }
1957    
 =head3 Escape  
1958    
1959  C<< my $codedString = Tracer::Escape($realString); >>  =head2 File Utility Methods
1960    
1961  Escape a string for use in a command length. Tabs will be replaced by C<\t>, new-lines  =head3 GetFile
 replaced by C<\n>, carriage returns will be deleted, and backslashes will be doubled. The  
 result is to reverse the effect of L</UnEscape>.  
1962    
1963  =over 4      my @fileContents = Tracer::GetFile($fileName);
1964    
1965  =item realString      or
1966    
1967  String to escape.      my $fileContents = Tracer::GetFile($fileName);
1968    
1969  =item RETURN  Return the entire contents of a file. In list context, line-ends are removed and
1970    each line is a list element. In scalar context, line-ends are replaced by C<\n>.
1971    
1972  Escaped equivalent of the real string.  =over 4
1973    
1974  =back  =item fileName
1975    
1976  =cut  Name of the file to read.
1977    
1978  sub Escape {  =item RETURN
1979      # Get the parameter.  
1980      my ($realString) = @_;  In a list context, returns the entire file as a list with the line terminators removed.
1981      # Initialize the return variable.  In a scalar context, returns the entire file as a string. If an error occurs opening
1982      my $retVal = "";  the file, an empty list will be returned.
1983      # Loop through the parameter string, looking for sequences to escape.  
1984      while (length $realString > 0) {  =back
1985          # Look for the first sequence to escape.  
1986          if ($realString =~ /^(.*?)([\n\t\r\\])/) {  =cut
1987              # Here we found it. The text preceding the sequence is in $1. The sequence  
1988              # itself is in $2. First, move the clear text to the return variable.  sub GetFile {
1989              $retVal .= $1;      # Get the parameters.
1990              # Strip the processed section off the real string.      my ($fileName) = @_;
1991              $realString = substr $realString, (length $2) + (length $1);      # Declare the return variable.
1992              # Get the matched character.      my @retVal = ();
1993              my $char = $2;      # Open the file for input.
1994              # If we have a CR, we are done.      my $handle = Open(undef, "<$fileName");
1995              if ($char ne "\r") {      # Read the whole file into the return variable, stripping off any terminator
1996                  # It's not a CR, so encode the escape sequence.      # characters.
1997                  $char =~ tr/\t\n/tn/;      my $lineCount = 0;
1998                  $retVal .= "\\" . $char;      while (my $line = <$handle>) {
1999            $lineCount++;
2000            $line = Strip($line);
2001            push @retVal, $line;
2002              }              }
2003        # Close it.
2004        close $handle;
2005        my $actualLines = @retVal;
2006        Trace("$actualLines lines read from file $fileName.") if T(File => 2);
2007        # Return the file's contents in the desired format.
2008        if (wantarray) {
2009            return @retVal;
2010          } else {          } else {
2011              # Here there are no more escape sequences. The rest of the string is          return join "\n", @retVal;
             # transferred unmodified.  
             $retVal .= $realString;  
             $realString = "";  
         }  
2012      }      }
     # Return the result.  
     return $retVal;  
2013  }  }
2014    
2015  =head3 UnEscape  =head3 PutFile
2016    
2017  C<< my $realString = Tracer::UnEscape($codedString); >>      Tracer::PutFile($fileName, \@lines);
2018    
2019  Replace escape sequences with their actual equivalents. C<\t> will be replaced by  Write out a file from a list of lines of text.
 a tab, C<\n> by a new-line character, and C<\\> by a backslash. C<\r> codes will  
 be deleted.  
2020    
2021  =over 4  =over 4
2022    
2023  =item codedString  =item fileName
2024    
2025  String to un-escape.  Name of the output file.
2026    
2027  =item RETURN  =item lines
2028    
2029  Returns a copy of the original string with the escape sequences converted to their actual  Reference to a list of text lines. The lines will be written to the file in order, with trailing
2030  values.  new-line characters. Alternatively, may be a string, in which case the string will be written without
2031    modification.
2032    
2033  =back  =back
2034    
2035  =cut  =cut
2036    
2037  sub UnEscape {  sub PutFile {
2038      # Get the parameter.      # Get the parameters.
2039      my ($codedString) = @_;      my ($fileName, $lines) = @_;
2040      # Initialize the return variable.      # Open the output file.
2041      my $retVal = "";      my $handle = Open(undef, ">$fileName");
2042      # Only proceed if the incoming string is nonempty.      # Count the lines written.
2043      if (defined $codedString) {      if (ref $lines ne 'ARRAY') {
2044          # Loop through the parameter string, looking for escape sequences. We can't do          # Here we have a scalar, so we write it raw.
2045          # translating because it causes problems with the escaped slash. ("\\t" becomes          print $handle $lines;
2046          # "\<tab>" no matter what we do.)          Trace("Scalar put to file $fileName.") if T(File => 3);
         while (length $codedString > 0) {  
             # Look for the first escape sequence.  
             if ($codedString =~ /^(.*?)\\(\\|n|t|r)/) {  
                 # Here we found it. The text preceding the sequence is in $1. The sequence  
                 # itself is in $2. First, move the clear text to the return variable.  
                 $retVal .= $1;  
                 $codedString = substr $codedString, (2 + length $1);  
                 # Get the escape value.  
                 my $char = $2;  
                 # If we have a "\r", we are done.  
                 if ($char ne 'r') {  
                     # Here it's not an 'r', so we convert it.  
                     $char =~ tr/\\tn/\\\t\n/;  
                     $retVal .= $char;  
                 }  
2047              } else {              } else {
2048                  # Here there are no more escape sequences. The rest of the string is          # Write the lines one at a time.
2049                  # transferred unmodified.          my $count = 0;
2050                  $retVal .= $codedString;          for my $line (@{$lines}) {
2051                  $codedString = "";              print $handle "$line\n";
2052              }              $count++;
2053          }          }
2054            Trace("$count lines put to file $fileName.") if T(File => 3);
2055      }      }
2056      # Return the result.      # Close the output file.
2057      return $retVal;      close $handle;
2058  }  }
2059    
2060  =head3 ParseRecord  =head3 ParseRecord
2061    
2062  C<< my @fields = Tracer::ParseRecord($line); >>      my @fields = Tracer::ParseRecord($line);
2063    
2064  Parse a tab-delimited data line. The data line is split into field values. Embedded tab  Parse a tab-delimited data line. The data line is split into field values. Embedded tab
2065  and new-line characters in the data line must be represented as C<\t> and C<\n>, respectively.  and new-line characters in the data line must be represented as C<\t> and C<\n>, respectively.
# Line 1305  Line 2104 
2104    
2105  =head3 Merge  =head3 Merge
2106    
2107  C<< my @mergedList = Tracer::Merge(@inputList); >>      my @mergedList = Tracer::Merge(@inputList);
2108    
2109  Sort a list of strings and remove duplicates.  Sort a list of strings and remove duplicates.
2110    
# Line 1351  Line 2150 
2150      return @inputList;      return @inputList;
2151  }  }
2152    
2153  =head3 Percent  =head3 Open
2154    
2155        my $handle = Open($fileHandle, $fileSpec, $message);
2156    
2157    Open a file.
2158    
2159    The I<$fileSpec> is essentially the second argument of the PERL C<open>
2160    function. The mode is specified using Unix-like shell information. So, for
2161    example,
2162    
2163        Open(\*LOGFILE, '>>/usr/spool/news/twitlog', "Could not open twit log.");
2164    
2165    would open for output appended to the specified file, and
2166    
2167        Open(\*DATASTREAM, "| sort -u >$outputFile", "Could not open $outputFile.");
2168    
2169    would open a pipe that sorts the records written and removes duplicates. Note
2170    the use of file handle syntax in the Open call. To use anonymous file handles,
2171    code as follows.
2172    
2173        my $logFile = Open(undef, '>>/usr/spool/news/twitlog', "Could not open twit log.");
2174    
2175    The I<$message> parameter is used if the open fails. If it is set to C<0>, then
2176    the open returns TRUE if successful and FALSE if an error occurred. Otherwise, a
2177    failed open will throw an exception and the third parameter will be used to construct
2178    an error message. If the parameter is omitted, a standard message is constructed
2179    using the file spec.
2180    
2181        Could not open "/usr/spool/news/twitlog"
2182    
2183    Note that the mode characters are automatically cleaned from the file name.
2184    The actual error message from the file system will be captured and appended to the
2185    message in any case.
2186    
2187        Could not open "/usr/spool/news/twitlog": file not found.
2188    
2189    In some versions of PERL the only error message we get is a number, which
2190    corresponds to the C++ C<errno> value.
2191    
2192        Could not open "/usr/spool/news/twitlog": 6.
2193    
2194    =over 4
2195    
2196    =item fileHandle
2197    
2198    File handle. If this parameter is C<undef>, a file handle will be generated
2199    and returned as the value of this method.
2200    
2201    =item fileSpec
2202    
2203    File name and mode, as per the PERL C<open> function.
2204    
2205    =item message (optional)
2206    
2207    Error message to use if the open fails. If omitted, a standard error message
2208    will be generated. In either case, the error information from the file system
2209    is appended to the message. To specify a conditional open that does not throw
2210    an error if it fails, use C<0>.
2211    
2212    =item RETURN
2213    
2214    Returns the name of the file handle assigned to the file, or C<undef> if the
2215    open failed.
2216    
2217    =back
2218    
2219    =cut
2220    
2221    sub Open {
2222        # Get the parameters.
2223        my ($fileHandle, $fileSpec, $message) = @_;
2224        # Attempt to open the file.
2225        my $rv = open $fileHandle, $fileSpec;
2226        # If the open failed, generate an error message.
2227        if (! $rv) {
2228            # Save the system error message.
2229            my $sysMessage = $!;
2230            # See if we need a default message.
2231            if (!$message) {
2232                # Clean any obvious mode characters and leading spaces from the
2233                # filename.
2234                my ($fileName) = FindNamePart($fileSpec);
2235                $message = "Could not open \"$fileName\"";
2236            }
2237            # Terminate with an error using the supplied message and the
2238            # error message from the file system.
2239            Confess("$message: $!");
2240        }
2241        # Return the file handle.
2242        return $fileHandle;
2243    }
2244    
2245    =head3 FindNamePart
2246    
2247        my ($fileName, $start, $len) = Tracer::FindNamePart($fileSpec);
2248    
2249    Extract the portion of a file specification that contains the file name.
2250    
2251    A file specification is the string passed to an C<open> call. It specifies the file
2252    mode and name. In a truly complex situation, it can specify a pipe sequence. This
2253    method assumes that the file name is whatever follows the first angle bracket
2254    sequence.  So, for example, in the following strings the file name is
2255    C</usr/fig/myfile.txt>.
2256    
2257        >>/usr/fig/myfile.txt
2258        </usr/fig/myfile.txt
2259        | sort -u > /usr/fig/myfile.txt
2260    
2261    If the method cannot find a file name using its normal methods, it will return the
2262    whole incoming string.
2263    
2264    =over 4
2265    
2266    =item fileSpec
2267    
2268    File specification string from which the file name is to be extracted.
2269    
2270    =item RETURN
2271    
2272    Returns a three-element list. The first element contains the file name portion of
2273    the specified string, or the whole string if a file name cannot be found via normal
2274    methods. The second element contains the start position of the file name portion and
2275    the third element contains the length.
2276    
2277    =back
2278    
2279    =cut
2280    #: Return Type $;
2281    sub FindNamePart {
2282        # Get the parameters.
2283        my ($fileSpec) = @_;
2284        # Default to the whole input string.
2285        my ($retVal, $pos, $len) = ($fileSpec, 0, length $fileSpec);
2286        # Parse out the file name if we can.
2287        if ($fileSpec =~ m/(<|>>?)(.+?)(\s*)$/) {
2288            $retVal = $2;
2289            $len = length $retVal;
2290            $pos = (length $fileSpec) - (length $3) - $len;
2291        }
2292        # Return the result.
2293        return ($retVal, $pos, $len);
2294    }
2295    
2296    =head3 OpenDir
2297    
2298        my @files = OpenDir($dirName, $filtered, $flag);
2299    
2300    Open a directory and return all the file names. This function essentially performs
2301    the functions of an C<opendir> and C<readdir>. If the I<$filtered> parameter is
2302    set to TRUE, all filenames beginning with a period (C<.>), dollar sign (C<$>),
2303    or pound sign (C<#>) and all filenames ending with a tilde C<~>) will be
2304    filtered out of the return list. If the directory does not open and I<$flag> is not
2305    set, an exception is thrown. So, for example,
2306    
2307        my @files = OpenDir("/Volumes/fig/contigs", 1);
2308    
2309    is effectively the same as
2310    
2311        opendir(TMP, "/Volumes/fig/contigs") || Confess("Could not open /Volumes/fig/contigs.");
2312        my @files = grep { $_ !~ /^[\.\$\#]/ && $_ !~ /~$/ } readdir(TMP);
2313    
2314    Similarly, the following code
2315    
2316  C<< my $percent = Tracer::Percent($number, $base); >>      my @files = grep { $_ =~ /^\d/ } OpenDir("/Volumes/fig/orgs", 0, 1);
2317    
2318  Returns the percent of the base represented by the given number. If the base  Returns the names of all files in C</Volumes/fig/orgs> that begin with digits and
2319  is zero, returns zero.  automatically returns an empty list if the directory fails to open.
2320    
2321  =over 4  =over 4
2322    
2323  =item number  =item dirName
2324    
2325  Percent numerator.  Name of the directory to open.
2326    
2327  =item base  =item filtered
2328    
2329  Percent base.  TRUE if files whose names begin with a period (C<.>) should be automatically removed
2330    from the list, else FALSE.
2331    
2332  =item RETURN  =item flag
2333    
2334  Returns the percentage of the base represented by the numerator.  TRUE if a failure to open is okay, else FALSE
2335    
2336  =back  =back
2337    
2338  =cut  =cut
2339    #: Return Type @;
2340  sub Percent {  sub OpenDir {
2341      # Get the parameters.      # Get the parameters.
2342      my ($number, $base) = @_;      my ($dirName, $filtered, $flag) = @_;
2343      # Declare the return variable.      # Declare the return variable.
2344      my $retVal = 0;      my @retVal = ();
2345      # Compute the percent.      # Open the directory.
2346      if ($base != 0) {      if (opendir(my $dirHandle, $dirName)) {
2347          $retVal = $number * 100 / $base;          # The directory opened successfully. Get the appropriate list according to the
2348            # strictures of the filter parameter.
2349            if ($filtered) {
2350                @retVal = grep { $_ !~ /^[\.\$\#]/ && $_ !~ /~$/ } readdir $dirHandle;
2351            } else {
2352                @retVal = readdir $dirHandle;
2353            }
2354        } elsif (! $flag) {
2355            # Here the directory would not open and it's considered an error.
2356            Confess("Could not open directory $dirName.");
2357      }      }
2358      # Return the result.      # Return the result.
2359      return $retVal;      return @retVal;
2360  }  }
2361    
 =head3 GetFile  
   
 C<< my @fileContents = Tracer::GetFile($fileName); >>  
2362    
2363      or  =head3 Insure
2364    
2365  C<< my $fileContents = Tracer::GetFile($fileName); >>      Insure($dirName, $chmod);
2366    
2367  Return the entire contents of a file. In list context, line-ends are removed and  Insure a directory is present.
 each line is a list element. In scalar context, line-ends are replaced by C<\n>.  
2368    
2369  =over 4  =over 4
2370    
2371  =item fileName  =item dirName
2372    
2373  Name of the file to read.  Name of the directory to check. If it does not exist, it will be created.
2374    
2375  =item RETURN  =item chmod (optional)
2376    
2377  In a list context, returns the entire file as a list with the line terminators removed.  Security privileges to be given to the directory if it is created.
 In a scalar context, returns the entire file as a string. If an error occurs opening  
 the file, an empty list will be returned.  
2378    
2379  =back  =back
2380    
2381  =cut  =cut
2382    
2383  sub GetFile {  sub Insure {
2384      # Get the parameters.      my ($dirName, $chmod) = @_;
2385      my ($fileName) = @_;      if (! -d $dirName) {
2386      # Declare the return variable.          Trace("Creating $dirName directory.") if T(2);
2387      my @retVal = ();          eval {
2388      # Open the file for input.              mkpath $dirName;
2389      my $handle = Open(undef, "<$fileName");              # If we have permissions specified, set them here.
2390      # Read the whole file into the return variable, stripping off any terminator              if (defined($chmod)) {
2391      # characters.                  chmod $chmod, $dirName;
2392      my $lineCount = 0;              }
2393      while (my $line = <$handle>) {          };
2394          $lineCount++;          if ($@) {
2395          $line = Strip($line);              Confess("Error creating $dirName: $@");
         push @retVal, $line;  
2396      }      }
     # Close it.  
     close $handle;  
     my $actualLines = @retVal;  
     # Return the file's contents in the desired format.  
     if (wantarray) {  
         return @retVal;  
     } else {  
         return join "\n", @retVal;  
2397      }      }
2398  }  }
2399    
2400  =head3 PutFile  =head3 ChDir
2401    
2402  C<< Tracer::PutFile($fileName, \@lines); >>      ChDir($dirName);
2403    
2404  Write out a file from a list of lines of text.  Change to the specified directory.
2405    
2406  =over 4  =over 4
2407    
2408  =item fileName  =item dirName
   
 Name of the output file.  
   
 =item lines  
2409    
2410  Reference to a list of text lines. The lines will be written to the file in order, with trailing  Name of the directory to which we want to change.
 new-line characters. Alternatively, may be a string, in which case the string will be written without  
 modification.  
2411    
2412  =back  =back
2413    
2414  =cut  =cut
2415    
2416  sub PutFile {  sub ChDir {
2417      # Get the parameters.      my ($dirName) = @_;
2418      my ($fileName, $lines) = @_;      if (! -d $dirName) {
2419      # Open the output file.          Confess("Cannot change to directory $dirName: no such directory.");
     my $handle = Open(undef, ">$fileName");  
     if (ref $lines ne 'ARRAY') {  
         # Here we have a scalar, so we write it raw.  
         print $handle $lines;  
2420      } else {      } else {
2421          # Write the lines one at a time.          Trace("Changing to directory $dirName.") if T(File => 4);
2422          for my $line (@{$lines}) {          my $okFlag = chdir $dirName;
2423              print $handle "$line\n";          if (! $okFlag) {
2424                Confess("Error switching to directory $dirName.");
2425          }          }
2426      }      }
     # Close the output file.  
     close $handle;  
2427  }  }
2428    
2429  =head3 QTrace  =head3 SetPermissions
2430    
2431  C<< my $data = QTrace($format); >>      Tracer::SetPermissions($dirName, $group, $mask, %otherMasks);
2432    
2433  Return the queued trace data in the specified format.  Set the permissions for a directory and all the files and folders inside it.
2434    In addition, the group ownership will be changed to the specified value.
2435    
2436  =over 4  This method is more vulnerable than most to permission and compatability
2437    problems, so it does internal error recovery.
2438    
2439  =item format  =over 4
2440    
2441  C<html> to format the data as an HTML list, C<text> to format it as straight text.  =item dirName
2442    
2443  =back  Name of the directory to process.
2444    
2445  =cut  =item group
2446    
2447  sub QTrace {  Name of the group to be assigned.
     # Get the parameter.  
     my ($format) = @_;  
     # Create the return variable.  
     my $retVal = "";  
     # Only proceed if there is an actual queue.  
     if (@Queue) {  
         # Process according to the format.  
         if ($format =~ m/^HTML$/i) {  
             # Convert the queue into an HTML list.  
             $retVal = "<ul>\n";  
             for my $line (@Queue) {  
                 my $escapedLine = CGI::escapeHTML($line);  
                 $retVal .= "<li>$escapedLine</li>\n";  
             }  
             $retVal .= "</ul>\n";  
         } elsif ($format =~ m/^TEXT$/i) {  
             # Convert the queue into a list of text lines.  
             $retVal = join("\n", @Queue) . "\n";  
         }  
         # Clear the queue.  
         @Queue = ();  
     }  
     # Return the formatted list.  
     return $retVal;  
 }  
2448    
2449  =head3 Confess  =item mask
2450    
2451  C<< Confess($message); >>  Permission mask. Bits that are C<1> in this mask will be ORed into the
2452    permission bits of any file or directory that does not already have them
2453    set to 1.
2454    
2455  Trace the call stack and abort the program with the specified message. When used with  =item otherMasks
 the OR operator and the L</Assert> method, B<Confess> can function as a debugging assert.  
 So, for example  
2456    
2457  C<< Assert($recNum >= 0) || Confess("Invalid record number $recNum."); >>  Map of search patterns to permission masks. If a directory name matches
2458    one of the patterns, that directory and all its members and subdirectories
2459    will be assigned the new pattern. For example, the following would
2460    assign 01664 to most files, but would use 01777 for directories named C<tmp>.
2461    
2462  Will abort the program with a stack trace if the value of C<$recNum> is negative.      Tracer::SetPermissions($dirName, 'fig', 01664, '^tmp$' => 01777);
2463    
2464  =over 4  The list is ordered, so the following would use 0777 for C<tmp1> and
2465    0666 for C<tmp>, C<tmp2>, or C<tmp3>.
2466    
2467  =item message      Tracer::SetPermissions($dirName, 'fig', 01664, '^tmp1' => 0777,
2468                                                       '^tmp' => 0666);
2469    
2470  Message to include in the trace.  Note that the pattern matches are all case-insensitive, and only directory
2471    names are matched, not file names.
2472    
2473  =back  =back
2474    
2475  =cut  =cut
2476    
2477  sub Confess {  sub SetPermissions {
2478      # Get the parameters.      # Get the parameters.
2479      my ($message) = @_;      my ($dirName, $group, $mask, @otherMasks) = @_;
2480      # Trace the call stack.      # Set up for error recovery.
2481      Cluck($message);      eval {
2482      # Abort the program.          # Switch to the specified directory.
2483      croak(">>> $message");          ChDir($dirName);
2484            # Get the group ID.
2485            my $gid = getgrnam($group);
2486            # Get the mask for tracing.
2487            my $traceMask = sprintf("%04o", $mask) . "($mask)";
2488            Trace("Fixing permissions for directory $dirName using group $group($gid) and mask $traceMask.") if T(File => 2);
2489            my $fixCount = 0;
2490            my $lookCount = 0;
2491            # @dirs will be a stack of directories to be processed.
2492            my @dirs = (getcwd());
2493            while (scalar(@dirs) > 0) {
2494                # Get the current directory.
2495                my $dir = pop @dirs;
2496                # Check for a match to one of the specified directory names. To do
2497                # that, we need to pull the individual part of the name off of the
2498                # whole path.
2499                my $simpleName = $dir;
2500                if ($dir =~ m!/([^/]+)$!) {
2501                    $simpleName = $1;
2502                }
2503                Trace("Simple directory name for $dir is $simpleName.") if T(File => 4);
2504                # Search for a match.
2505                my $match = 0;
2506                my $i;
2507                for ($i = 0; $i < $#otherMasks && ! $match; $i += 2) {
2508                    my $pattern = $otherMasks[$i];
2509                    if ($simpleName =~ /$pattern/i) {
2510                        $match = 1;
2511                    }
2512                }
2513                # Check for a match. Note we use $i-1 because the loop added 2
2514                # before terminating due to the match.
2515                if ($match && $otherMasks[$i-1] != $mask) {
2516                    # This directory matches one of the incoming patterns, and it's
2517                    # a different mask, so we process it recursively with that mask.
2518                    SetPermissions($dir, $group, $otherMasks[$i-1], @otherMasks);
2519                } else {
2520                    # Here we can process normally. Get all of the non-hidden members.
2521                    my @submems = OpenDir($dir, 1);
2522                    for my $submem (@submems) {
2523                        # Get the full name.
2524                        my $thisMem = "$dir/$submem";
2525                        Trace("Checking member $thisMem.") if T(4);
2526                        $lookCount++;
2527                        if ($lookCount % 1000 == 0) {
2528                            Trace("$lookCount members examined. Current is $thisMem. Mask is $traceMask") if T(File => 3);
2529                        }
2530                        # Fix the group.
2531                        chown -1, $gid, $thisMem;
2532                        # Insure this member is not a symlink.
2533                        if (! -l $thisMem) {
2534                            # Get its info.
2535                            my $fileInfo = stat $thisMem;
2536                            # Only proceed if we got the info. Otherwise, it's a hard link
2537                            # and we want to skip it anyway.
2538                            if ($fileInfo) {
2539                                my $fileMode = $fileInfo->mode;
2540                                if (($fileMode & $mask) != $mask) {
2541                                    # Fix this member.
2542                                    $fileMode |= $mask;
2543                                    chmod $fileMode, $thisMem;
2544                                    $fixCount++;
2545  }  }
2546                                # If it's a subdirectory, stack it.
2547  =head3 Assert                              if (-d $thisMem) {
2548                                    push @dirs, $thisMem;
 C<< Assert($condition1, $condition2, ... $conditionN); >>  
   
 Return TRUE if all the conditions are true. This method can be used in conjunction with  
 the OR operator and the L</Confess> method as a debugging assert.  
 So, for example  
   
 C<< Assert($recNum >= 0) || Confess("Invalid record number $recNum."); >>  
   
 Will abort the program with a stack trace if the value of C<$recNum> is negative.  
   
 =cut  
 sub Assert {  
     my $retVal = 1;  
     LOOP: for my $condition (@_) {  
         if (! $condition) {  
             $retVal = 0;  
             last LOOP;  
2549          }          }
2550      }      }
     return $retVal;  
2551  }  }
   
 =head3 Cluck  
   
 C<< Cluck($message); >>  
   
 Trace the call stack. Note that for best results, you should qualify the call with a  
 trace condition. For example,  
   
 C<< Cluck("Starting record parse.") if T(3); >>  
   
 will only trace the stack if the trace level for the package is 3 or more.  
   
 =over 4  
   
 =item message  
   
 Message to include in the trace.  
   
 =back  
   
 =cut  
   
 sub Cluck {  
     # Get the parameters.  
     my ($message) = @_;  
     # Trace what's happening.  
     Trace("Stack trace for event: $message");  
     my $confession = longmess($message);  
     # Convert the confession to a series of trace messages. Note we skip any  
     # messages relating to calls into Tracer.  
     for my $line (split /\s*\n/, $confession) {  
         Trace($line) if ($line !~ /Tracer\.pm/);  
2552      }      }
2553  }  }
   
 =head3 Min  
   
 C<< my $min = Min($value1, $value2, ... $valueN); >>  
   
 Return the minimum argument. The arguments are treated as numbers.  
   
 =over 4  
   
 =item $value1, $value2, ... $valueN  
   
 List of numbers to compare.  
   
 =item RETURN  
   
 Returns the lowest number in the list.  
   
 =back  
   
 =cut  
   
 sub Min {  
     # Get the parameters. Note that we prime the return value with the first parameter.  
     my ($retVal, @values) = @_;  
     # Loop through the remaining parameters, looking for the lowest.  
     for my $value (@values) {  
         if ($value < $retVal) {  
             $retVal = $value;  
2554          }          }
2555            Trace("$lookCount files and directories processed, $fixCount fixed.") if T(File => 2);
2556        };
2557        # Check for an error.
2558        if ($@) {
2559            Confess("SetPermissions error: $@");
2560      }      }
     # Return the minimum found.  
     return $retVal;  
2561  }  }
2562    
2563  =head3 Max  =head3 GetLine
2564    
2565  C<< my $max = Max($value1, $value2, ... $valueN); >>      my @data = Tracer::GetLine($handle);
2566    
2567  Return the maximum argument. The arguments are treated as numbers.  Read a line of data from a tab-delimited file.
2568    
2569  =over 4  =over 4
2570    
2571  =item $value1, $value2, ... $valueN  =item handle
2572    
2573  List of numbers to compare.  Open file handle from which to read.
2574    
2575  =item RETURN  =item RETURN
2576    
2577  Returns the highest number in the list.  Returns a list of the fields in the record read. The fields are presumed to be
2578    tab-delimited. If we are at the end of the file, then an empty list will be
2579    returned. If an empty line is read, a single list item consisting of a null
2580    string will be returned.
2581    
2582  =back  =back
2583    
2584  =cut  =cut
2585    
2586  sub Max {  sub GetLine {
2587      # Get the parameters. Note that we prime the return value with the first parameter.      # Get the parameters.
2588      my ($retVal, @values) = @_;      my ($handle) = @_;
2589      # Loop through the remaining parameters, looking for the highest.      # Declare the return variable.
2590      for my $value (@values) {      my @retVal = ();
2591          if ($value > $retVal) {      Trace("File position is " . tell($handle) . ". EOF flag is " . eof($handle) . ".") if T(File => 4);
2592              $retVal = $value;      # Read from the file.
2593        my $line = <$handle>;
2594        # Only proceed if we found something.
2595        if (defined $line) {
2596            # Remove the new-line. We are a bit over-cautious here because the file may be coming in via an
2597            # upload control and have a nonstandard EOL combination.
2598            $line =~ s/(\r|\n)+$//;
2599            # Here we do some fancy tracing to help in debugging complicated EOL marks.
2600            if (T(File => 4)) {
2601                my $escapedLine = $line;
2602                $escapedLine =~ s/\n/\\n/g;
2603                $escapedLine =~ s/\r/\\r/g;
2604                $escapedLine =~ s/\t/\\t/g;
2605                Trace("Line read: -->$escapedLine<--");
2606            }
2607            # If the line is empty, return a single empty string; otherwise, parse
2608            # it into fields.
2609            if ($line eq "") {
2610                push @retVal, "";
2611            } else {
2612                push @retVal, split /\t/,$line;
2613          }          }
2614        } else {
2615            # Trace the reason the read failed.
2616            Trace("End of file: $!") if T(File => 3);
2617      }      }
2618      # Return the maximum found.      # Return the result.
2619      return $retVal;      return @retVal;
2620  }  }
2621    
2622  =head3 AddToListMap  =head3 PutLine
2623    
2624  C<< Tracer::AddToListMap(\%hash, $key, $value1, $value2, ... valueN); >>      Tracer::PutLine($handle, \@fields, $eol);
2625    
2626  Add a key-value pair to a hash of lists. If no value exists for the key, a singleton list  Write a line of data to a tab-delimited file. The specified field values will be
2627  is created for the key. Otherwise, the new value is pushed onto the list.  output in tab-separated form, with a trailing new-line.
2628    
2629  =over 4  =over 4
2630    
2631  =item hash  =item handle
2632    
2633  Reference to the target hash.  Output file handle.
2634    
2635  =item key  =item fields
2636    
2637  Key for which the value is to be added.  List of field values.
2638    
2639  =item value1, value2, ... valueN  =item eol (optional)
2640    
2641  List of values to add to the key's value list.  End-of-line character (default is "\n").
2642    
2643  =back  =back
2644    
2645  =cut  =cut
2646    
2647  sub AddToListMap {  sub PutLine {
2648      # Get the parameters.      # Get the parameters.
2649      my ($hash, $key, @values) = @_;      my ($handle, $fields, $eol) = @_;
2650      # Process according to whether or not the key already has a value.      # Write the data.
2651      if (! exists $hash->{$key}) {      print $handle join("\t", @{$fields}) . ($eol || "\n");
         $hash->{$key} = [@values];  
     } else {  
         push @{$hash->{$key}}, @values;  
     }  
2652  }  }
2653    
 =head3 DebugMode  
   
 C<< if (Tracer::DebugMode) { ...code... } >>  
   
 Return TRUE if debug mode has been turned on, else output an error  
 page and return FALSE.  
   
 Certain CGI scripts are too dangerous to exist in the production  
 environment. This method provides a simple way to prevent them  
 from working unless they are explicitly turned on by creating a password  
 cookie via the B<SetPassword> script.  If debugging mode  
 is not turned on, an error web page will be output directing the  
 user to enter in the correct password.  
   
 =cut  
   
 sub DebugMode {  
     # Declare the return variable.  
     my $retVal = 0;  
     # Check the debug configuration.  
     my $password = CGI::cookie("DebugMode");  
     my $encrypted = Digest::MD5::md5_hex($password);  
     if ($encrypted eq "252dec43280e0c0d6a75ffcec486e61d") {  
         $retVal = 1;  
     } else {  
         # Here debug mode is off, so we generate an error page.  
         my $pageString = PageBuilder::Build("<<Html/ErrorPage.html", {}, "Html");  
         print $pageString;  
     }  
     # Return the determination indicator.  
     return $retVal;  
 }  
2654    
2655  =head3 Strip  =head3 PrintLine
2656    
2657  C<< my $string = Tracer::Strip($line); >>      Tracer::PrintLine($line);
2658    
2659  Strip all line terminators off a string. This is necessary when dealing with files  Print a line of text with a trailing new-line.
 that may have been transferred back and forth several times among different  
 operating environments.  
2660    
2661  =over 4  =over 4
2662    
2663  =item line  =item line
2664    
2665  Line of text to be stripped.  Line of text to print.
   
 =item RETURN  
   
 The same line of text with all the line-ending characters chopped from the end.  
2666    
2667  =back  =back
2668    
2669  =cut  =cut
2670    
2671  sub Strip {  sub PrintLine {
2672      # Get a copy of the parameter string.      # Get the parameters.
2673      my ($string) = @_;      my ($line) = @_;
2674      my $retVal = (defined $string ? $string : "");      # Print the line.
2675      # Strip the line terminator characters.      print "$line\n";
     $retVal =~ s/(\r|\n)+$//g;  
     # Return the result.  
     return $retVal;  
2676  }  }
2677    
 =head3 Pad  
   
 C<< my $paddedString = Tracer::Pad($string, $len, $left, $padChar); >>  
   
 Pad a string to a specified length. The pad character will be a  
 space, and the padding will be on the right side unless specified  
 in the third parameter.  
   
 =over 4  
   
 =item string  
2678    
2679  String to be padded.  =head2 Other Useful Methods
2680    
2681  =item len  =head3 ParseParm
2682    
2683  Desired length of the padded string.      my $listValue = Tracer::ParseParm($string);
2684    
2685  =item left (optional)  Convert a parameter into a list reference. If the parameter is undefined,
2686    an undefined value will be returned. Otherwise, it will be parsed as a
2687    comma-separated list of values.
2688    
2689  TRUE if the string is to be left-padded; otherwise it will be padded on the right.  =over 4
2690    
2691  =item padChar (optional)  =item string
2692    
2693  Character to use for padding. The default is a space.  Incoming string.
2694    
2695  =item RETURN  =item RETURN
2696    
2697  Returns a copy of the original string with the pad character added to the  Returns a reference to a list of values, or C<undef> if the incoming value
2698  specified end so that it achieves the desired length.  was undefined.
2699    
2700  =back  =back
2701    
2702  =cut  =cut
2703    
2704  sub Pad {  sub ParseParm {
2705      # Get the parameters.      # Get the parameters.
2706      my ($string, $len, $left, $padChar) = @_;      my ($string) = @_;
2707      # Compute the padding character.      # Declare the return variable.
2708      if (! defined $padChar) {      my $retVal;
2709          $padChar = " ";      # Check for data.
2710      }      if (defined $string) {
2711      # Compute the number of spaces needed.          # We have some, so split it into a list.
2712      my $needed = $len - length $string;          $retVal = [ split /\s*,\s*/, $string];
     # Copy the string into the return variable.  
     my $retVal = $string;  
     # Only proceed if padding is needed.  
     if ($needed > 0) {  
         # Create the pad string.  
         my $pad = $padChar x $needed;  
         # Affix it to the return value.  
         if ($left) {  
             $retVal = $pad . $retVal;  
         } else {  
             $retVal .= $pad;  
         }  
2713      }      }
2714      # Return the result.      # Return the result.
2715      return $retVal;      return $retVal;
2716  }  }
2717    
2718  =head3 EOF  =head3 Now
2719    
2720  This is a constant that is lexically greater than any useful string.      my $string = Tracer::Now();
2721    
2722    Return a displayable time stamp containing the local time. Whatever format this
2723    method produces must be parseable by L</ParseDate>.
2724    
2725  =cut  =cut
2726    
2727  sub EOF {  sub Now {
2728      return "\xFF\xFF\xFF\xFF\xFF";      return DisplayTime(time);
2729  }  }
2730    
2731  =head3 TICK  =head3 DisplayTime
   
 C<< my @results = TICK($commandString); >>  
   
 Perform a back-tick operation on a command. If this is a Windows environment, any leading  
 dot-slash (C<./> will be removed. So, for example, if you were doing  
   
     `./protein.cgi`  
   
 from inside a CGI script, it would work fine in Unix, but would issue an error message  
 in Windows complaining that C<'.'> is not a valid command. If instead you code  
2732    
2733      TICK("./protein.cgi")      my $string = Tracer::DisplayTime($time);
2734    
2735  it will work correctly in both environments.  Convert a time value to a displayable time stamp. Whatever format this
2736    method produces must be parseable by L</ParseDate>.
2737    
2738  =over 4  =over 4
2739    
2740  =item commandString  =item time
2741    
2742  The command string to pass to the system.  Time to display, in seconds since the epoch, or C<undef> if the time is unknown.
2743    
2744  =item RETURN  =item RETURN
2745    
2746  Returns the standard output from the specified command, as a list.  Returns a displayable time, or C<(n/a)> if the incoming time is undefined.
2747    
2748  =back  =back
2749    
2750  =cut  =cut
2751  #: Return Type @;  
2752  sub TICK {  sub DisplayTime {
2753      # Get the parameters.      my ($time) = @_;
2754      my ($commandString) = @_;      my $retVal = "(n/a)";
2755      # Chop off the dot-slash if this is Windows.      if (defined $time) {
2756      if ($FIG_Config::win_mode) {          my ($sec,$min,$hour,$mday,$mon,$year,$wday,$yday,$isdst) = localtime($time);
2757          $commandString =~ s!^\./!!;          $retVal = _p2($mon+1) . "/" . _p2($mday) . "/" . ($year + 1900) . " " .
2758                      _p2($hour) . ":" . _p2($min) . ":" . _p2($sec);
2759      }      }
2760      # Activate the command and return the result.      return $retVal;
2761      return `$commandString`;  }
2762    
2763    # Pad a number to 2 digits.
2764    sub _p2 {
2765        my ($value) = @_;
2766        $value = "0$value" if ($value < 10);
2767        return $value;
2768  }  }
2769    
2770  =head3 ScriptSetup  =head3 Escape
2771    
2772        my $codedString = Tracer::Escape($realString);
2773    
2774  C<< my ($query, $varHash) = ScriptSetup(); >>  Escape a string for use in a command. Tabs will be replaced by C<\t>, new-lines
2775    replaced by C<\n>, carriage returns will be deleted, and backslashes will be doubled. The
2776    result is to reverse the effect of L</UnEscape>.
2777    
2778  Perform standard tracing and debugging setup for scripts. The value returned is  =over 4
2779  the CGI object followed by a pre-built variable hash.  
2780    =item realString
2781    
2782    String to escape.
2783    
2784  The C<Trace> query parameter is used to determine whether or not tracing is active and  =item RETURN
2785  which trace modules (other than C<Tracer> and C<FIG>) should be turned on. Specifying  
2786  the C<CGI> trace module will trace parameter and environment information. Parameters are  Escaped equivalent of the real string.
2787  traced at level 3 and environment variables at level 4. At the end of the script, the  
2788  client should call L</ScriptFinish> to output the web page.  =back
2789    
2790  =cut  =cut
2791    
2792  sub ScriptSetup {  sub Escape {
2793      # Get the CGI query object.      # Get the parameter.
2794      my $query = CGI->new();      my ($realString) = @_;
2795      # Check for tracing. Set it up if the user asked for it.      # Initialize the return variable.
2796      if ($query->param('Trace')) {      my $retVal = "";
2797          # Set up tracing.      # Loop through the parameter string, looking for sequences to escape.
2798          my $ttype = ($query->param('TF') ? ">$FIG_Config::temp/Trace$$.log" : "QUEUE");      while (length $realString > 0) {
2799          TSetup($query->param('Trace') . " FIG Tracer", $ttype);          # Look for the first sequence to escape.
2800          # Trace the parameter and environment data.          if ($realString =~ /^(.*?)([\n\t\r\\])/) {
2801          TraceParms($query);              # Here we found it. The text preceding the sequence is in $1. The sequence
2802      } else {              # itself is in $2. First, move the clear text to the return variable.
2803          # Here tracing is to be turned off. All we allow is errors traced into the              $retVal .= $1;
2804          # error log.              # Strip the processed section off the real string.
2805          TSetup("0", "WARN");              $realString = substr $realString, (length $2) + (length $1);
2806                # Get the matched character.
2807                my $char = $2;
2808                # If we have a CR, we are done.
2809                if ($char ne "\r") {
2810                    # It's not a CR, so encode the escape sequence.
2811                    $char =~ tr/\t\n/tn/;
2812                    $retVal .= "\\" . $char;
2813                }
2814            } else {
2815                # Here there are no more escape sequences. The rest of the string is
2816                # transferred unmodified.
2817                $retVal .= $realString;
2818                $realString = "";
2819      }      }
2820      # Create the variable hash.      }
2821      my $varHash = { DebugData => '' };      # Return the result.
2822      # Return the query object and variable hash.      return $retVal;
     return ($query, $varHash);  
2823  }  }
2824    
2825  =head3 TraceParms  =head3 UnEscape
2826    
2827  C<< Tracer::TraceParms($query); >>      my $realString = Tracer::UnEscape($codedString);
2828    
2829  Trace the CGI parameters at trace level CGI => 3 and the environment variables  Replace escape sequences with their actual equivalents. C<\t> will be replaced by
2830  at level CGI => 4.  a tab, C<\n> by a new-line character, and C<\\> by a backslash. C<\r> codes will
2831    be deleted.
2832    
2833  =over 4  =over 4
2834    
2835  =item query  =item codedString
2836    
2837  CGI query object containing the parameters to trace.  String to un-escape.
2838    
2839    =item RETURN
2840    
2841    Returns a copy of the original string with the escape sequences converted to their actual
2842    values.
2843    
2844  =back  =back
2845    
2846  =cut  =cut
2847    
2848  sub TraceParms {  sub UnEscape {
2849      # Get the parameters.      # Get the parameter.
2850      my ($query) = @_;      my ($codedString) = @_;
2851      if (T(CGI => 3)) {      # Initialize the return variable.
2852          # Here we want to trace the parameter data.      my $retVal = "";
2853          my @names = $query->param;      # Only proceed if the incoming string is nonempty.
2854          for my $parmName (sort @names) {      if (defined $codedString) {
2855              # Note we skip "Trace", which is for our use only.          # Loop through the parameter string, looking for escape sequences. We can't do
2856              if ($parmName ne 'Trace') {          # translating because it causes problems with the escaped slash. ("\\t" becomes
2857                  my @values = $query->param($parmName);          # "\<tab>" no matter what we do.)
2858                  Trace("CGI: $parmName = " . join(", ", @values));          while (length $codedString > 0) {
2859              }              # Look for the first escape sequence.
2860                if ($codedString =~ /^(.*?)\\(\\|n|t|r)/) {
2861                    # Here we found it. The text preceding the sequence is in $1. The sequence
2862                    # itself is in $2. First, move the clear text to the return variable.
2863                    $retVal .= $1;
2864                    $codedString = substr $codedString, (2 + length $1);
2865                    # Get the escape value.
2866                    my $char = $2;
2867                    # If we have a "\r", we are done.
2868                    if ($char ne 'r') {
2869                        # Here it's not an 'r', so we convert it.
2870                        $char =~ tr/\\tn/\\\t\n/;
2871                        $retVal .= $char;
2872          }          }
2873          # Now output a GET-style URL for this query.              } else {
2874          my $getURL = $query->url(-relative => 1, -query => 1);                  # Here there are no more escape sequences. The rest of the string is
2875          # Strip out the Trace parameters.                  # transferred unmodified.
2876          $getURL =~ s/Trace=\d[^;&]+[;&]//;                  $retVal .= $codedString;
2877          $getURL =~ s/TF=\d[;&]//;                  $codedString = "";
         # Output the URL.  
         Trace("URL: ../FIG/$getURL");  
         # Display the request method.  
         my $method = $query->request_method();  
         Trace("Method: $method");  
2878      }      }
     if (T(CGI => 4)) {  
         # Here we want the environment data too.  
         for my $envName (sort keys %ENV) {  
             Trace("ENV: $envName = $ENV{$envName}");  
2879          }          }
2880      }      }
2881        # Return the result.
2882        return $retVal;
2883  }  }
2884    
2885  =head3 ScriptFinish  =head3 Percent
   
 C<< ScriptFinish($webData, $varHash); >>  
   
 Output a web page at the end of a script. Either the string to be output or the  
 name of a template file can be specified. If the second parameter is omitted,  
 it is assumed we have a string to be output; otherwise, it is assumed we have the  
 name of a template file. The template should have the variable C<DebugData>  
 specified in any form that invokes a standard script. If debugging mode is turned  
 on, a form field will be put in that allows the user to enter tracing data.  
 Trace messages will be placed immediately before the terminal C<BODY> tag in  
 the output, formatted as a list.  
2886    
2887  A typical standard script would loook like the following.      my $percent = Tracer::Percent($number, $base);
2888    
2889      BEGIN {  Returns the percent of the base represented by the given number. If the base
2890          # Print the HTML header.  is zero, returns zero.
         print "CONTENT-TYPE: text/html\n\n";  
     }  
     use Tracer;  
     use CGI;  
     use FIG;  
     # ... more uses ...  
2891    
2892      my ($query, $varHash) = ScriptSetup();  =over 4
     eval {  
         # ... get data from $query, put it in $varHash ...  
     };  
     if ($@) {  
         Trace("Script Error: $@") if T(0);  
     }  
     ScriptFinish("Html/MyTemplate.html", $varHash);  
2893    
2894  The idea here is that even if the script fails, you'll see trace messages and  =item number
 useful output.  
2895    
2896  =over 4  Percent numerator.
2897    
2898  =item webData  =item base
2899    
2900  A string containing either the full web page to be written to the output or the  Percent base.
 name of a template file from which the page is to be constructed. If the name  
 of a template file is specified, then the second parameter must be present;  
 otherwise, it must be absent.  
2901    
2902  =item varHash (optional)  =item RETURN
2903    
2904  If specified, then a reference to a hash mapping variable names for a template  Returns the percentage of the base represented by the numerator.
 to their values. The template file will be read into memory, and variable markers  
 will be replaced by data in this hash reference.  
2905    
2906  =back  =back
2907    
2908  =cut  =cut
2909    
2910  sub ScriptFinish {  sub Percent {
2911      # Get the parameters.      # Get the parameters.
2912      my ($webData, $varHash) = @_;      my ($number, $base) = @_;
2913      # Check for a template file situation.      # Declare the return variable.
2914      my $outputString;      my $retVal = 0;
2915      if (defined $varHash) {      # Compute the percent.
2916          # Here we have a template file. We need to determine the template type.      if ($base != 0) {
2917          my $template;          $retVal = $number * 100 / $base;
         if ($FIG_Config::template_url && $webData =~ /\.php$/) {  
             $template = "$FIG_Config::template_url/$webData";  
         } else {  
             $template = "<<$webData";  
         }  
         $outputString = PageBuilder::Build($template, $varHash, "Html");  
     } else {  
         # Here the user gave us a raw string.  
         $outputString = $webData;  
     }  
     # Check for trace messages.  
     if ($Destination eq "QUEUE") {  
         # We have trace messages, so we want to put them at the end of the body. This  
         # is either at the end of the whole string or at the beginning of the BODY  
         # end-tag.  
         my $pos = length $outputString;  
         if ($outputString =~ m#</body>#gi) {  
             $pos = (pos $outputString) - 7;  
         }  
         substr $outputString, $pos, 0, QTrace('Html');  
2918      }      }
2919      # Write the output string.      # Return the result.
2920      print $outputString;      return $retVal;
2921  }  }
2922    
2923  =head3 Insure  =head3 Constrain
2924    
2925  C<< Insure($dirName); >>      my $constrained = Constrain($value, $min, $max);
2926    
2927  Insure a directory is present.  Modify a numeric value to bring it to a point in between a maximum and a minimum.
2928    
2929  =over 4  =over 4
2930    
2931  =item dirName  =item value
2932    
2933  Name of the directory to check. If it does not exist, it will be created.  Value to constrain.
2934    
2935    =item min (optional)
2936    
2937    Minimum permissible value. If this parameter is undefined, no minimum constraint will be applied.
2938    
2939    =item max (optional)
2940    
2941    Maximum permissible value. If this parameter is undefined, no maximum constraint will be applied.
2942    
2943    =item RETURN
2944    
2945    Returns the incoming value, constrained according to the other parameters.
2946    
2947  =back  =back
2948    
2949  =cut  =cut
2950    
2951  sub Insure {  sub Constrain {
2952      my ($dirName) = @_;      # Get the parameters.
2953      if (! -d $dirName) {      my ($value, $min, $max) = @_;
2954          Trace("Creating $dirName directory.") if T(2);      # Declare the return variable.
2955          eval { mkpath $dirName; };      my $retVal = $value;
2956          if ($@) {      # Apply the minimum constraint.
2957              Confess("Error creating $dirName: $@");      if (defined $min && $retVal < $min) {
2958          }          $retVal = $min;
2959        }
2960        # Apply the maximum constraint.
2961        if (defined $max && $retVal > $max) {
2962            $retVal = $max;
2963      }      }
2964        # Return the result.
2965        return $retVal;
2966  }  }
2967    
2968  =head3 ChDir  =head3 Min
2969    
2970  C<< ChDir($dirName); >>      my $min = Min($value1, $value2, ... $valueN);
2971    
2972  Change to the specified directory.  Return the minimum argument. The arguments are treated as numbers.
2973    
2974  =over 4  =over 4
2975    
2976  =item dirName  =item $value1, $value2, ... $valueN
2977    
2978  Name of the directory to which we want to change.  List of numbers to compare.
2979    
2980    =item RETURN
2981    
2982    Returns the lowest number in the list.
2983    
2984  =back  =back
2985    
2986  =cut  =cut
2987    
2988  sub ChDir {  sub Min {
2989      my ($dirName) = @_;      # Get the parameters. Note that we prime the return value with the first parameter.
2990      if (! -d $dirName) {      my ($retVal, @values) = @_;
2991          Confess("Cannot change to directory $dirName: no such directory.");      # Loop through the remaining parameters, looking for the lowest.
2992      } else {      for my $value (@values) {
2993          Trace("Changing to directory $dirName.") if T(4);          if ($value < $retVal) {
2994          my $okFlag = chdir $dirName;              $retVal = $value;
         if (! $okFlag) {  
             Confess("Error switching to directory $dirName.");  
2995          }          }
2996      }      }
2997        # Return the minimum found.
2998        return $retVal;
2999  }  }
3000    
3001  =head3 SendSMS  =head3 Max
   
 C<< my $msgID = Tracer::SendSMS($phoneNumber, $msg); >>  
   
 Send a text message to a phone number using Clickatell. The FIG_Config file must contain the  
 user name, password, and API ID for the relevant account in the hash reference variable  
 I<$FIG_Config::phone>, using the keys C<user>, C<password>, and C<api_id>. For  
 example, if the user name is C<BruceTheHumanPet>, the password is C<silly>, and the API ID  
 is C<2561022>, then the FIG_Config file must contain  
   
     $phone =  { user => 'BruceTheHumanPet',  
                 password => 'silly',  
                 api_id => '2561022' };  
   
 The original purpose of this method was to insure Bruce would be notified immediately when the  
 Sprout Load terminates. Care should be taken if you do not wish Bruce to be notified immediately  
 when you call this method.  
   
 The message ID will be returned if successful, and C<undef> if an error occurs.  
3002    
3003  =over 4      my $max = Max($value1, $value2, ... $valueN);
3004    
3005  =item phoneNumber  Return the maximum argument. The arguments are treated as numbers.
3006    
3007  Phone number to receive the message, in international format. A United States phone number  =over 4
 would be prefixed by "1". A British phone number would be prefixed by "44".  
3008    
3009  =item msg  =item $value1, $value2, ... $valueN
3010    
3011  Message to send to the specified phone.  List of numbers to compare.
3012    
3013  =item RETURN  =item RETURN
3014    
3015  Returns the message ID if successful, and C<undef> if the message could not be sent.  Returns the highest number in the list.
3016    
3017  =back  =back
3018    
3019  =cut  =cut
3020    
3021  sub SendSMS {  sub Max {
3022      # Get the parameters.      # Get the parameters. Note that we prime the return value with the first parameter.
3023      my ($phoneNumber, $msg) = @_;      my ($retVal, @values) = @_;
3024      # Declare the return variable. If we do not change it, C<undef> will be returned.      # Loop through the remaining parameters, looking for the highest.
3025      my $retVal;      for my $value (@values) {
3026      # Only proceed if we have phone support.          if ($value > $retVal) {
3027      if (! defined $FIG_Config::phone) {              $retVal = $value;
         Trace("Phone support not present in FIG_Config.") if T(1);  
     } else {  
         # Get the phone data.  
         my $parms = $FIG_Config::phone;  
         # Get the Clickatell URL.  
         my $url = "http://api.clickatell.com/http/";  
         # Create the user agent.  
         my $ua = LWP::UserAgent->new;  
         # Request a Clickatell session.  
         my $resp = $ua->post("$url/sendmsg", { user => $parms->{user},  
                                      password => $parms->{password},  
                                      api_id => $parms->{api_id},  
                                      to => $phoneNumber,  
                                      text => $msg});  
         # Check for an error.  
         if (! $resp->is_success) {  
             Trace("Alert failed.") if T(1);  
         } else {  
             # Get the message ID.  
             my $rstring = $resp->content;  
             if ($rstring =~ /^ID:\s+(.*)$/) {  
                 $retVal = $1;  
             } else {  
                 Trace("Phone attempt failed with $rstring") if T(1);  
             }  
3028          }          }
3029      }      }
3030      # Return the result.      # Return the maximum found.
3031      return $retVal;      return $retVal;
3032  }  }
3033    
3034  =head3 CommaFormat  =head3 Strip
3035    
3036  C<< my $formatted = Tracer::CommaFormat($number); >>      my $string = Tracer::Strip($line);
3037    
3038  Insert commas into a number.  Strip all line terminators off a string. This is necessary when dealing with files
3039    that may have been transferred back and forth several times among different
3040    operating environments.
3041    
3042  =over 4  =over 4
3043    
3044  =item number  =item line
3045    
3046  A sequence of digits.  Line of text to be stripped.
3047    
3048  =item RETURN  =item RETURN
3049    
3050  Returns the same digits with commas strategically inserted.  The same line of text with all the line-ending characters chopped from the end.
3051    
3052  =back  =back
3053    
3054  =cut  =cut
3055    
3056  sub CommaFormat {  sub Strip {
3057      # Get the parameters.      # Get a copy of the parameter string.
3058      my ($number) = @_;      my ($string) = @_;
3059      # Pad the length up to a multiple of three.      my $retVal = (defined $string ? $string : "");
3060      my $padded = "$number";      # Strip the line terminator characters.
3061      $padded = " " . $padded while length($padded) % 3 != 0;      $retVal =~ s/(\r|\n)+$//g;
     # This is a fancy PERL trick. The parentheses in the SPLIT pattern  
     # cause the delimiters to be included in the output stream. The  
     # GREP removes the empty strings in between the delimiters.  
     my $retVal = join(",", grep { $_ ne '' } split(/(...)/, $padded));  
     # Clean out the spaces.  
     $retVal =~ s/ //g;  
3062      # Return the result.      # Return the result.
3063      return $retVal;      return $retVal;
3064  }  }
 =head3 SetPermissions  
3065    
3066  C<< Tracer::SetPermissions($dirName, $group, $mask, %otherMasks); >>  =head3 Pad
3067    
3068  Set the permissions for a directory and all the files and folders inside it.      my $paddedString = Tracer::Pad($string, $len, $left, $padChar);
 In addition, the group ownership will be changed to the specified value.  
3069    
3070  This method is more vulnerable than most to permission and compatability  Pad a string to a specified length. The pad character will be a
3071  problems, so it does internal error recovery.  space, and the padding will be on the right side unless specified
3072    in the third parameter.
3073    
3074  =over 4  =over 4
3075    
3076  =item dirName  =item string
   
 Name of the directory to process.  
   
 =item group  
3077    
3078  Name of the group to be assigned.  String to be padded.
3079    
3080  =item mask  =item len
3081    
3082  Permission mask. Bits that are C<1> in this mask will be ORed into the  Desired length of the padded string.
 permission bits of any file or directory that does not already have them  
 set to 1.  
3083    
3084  =item otherMasks  =item left (optional)
3085    
3086  Map of search patterns to permission masks. If a directory name matches  TRUE if the string is to be left-padded; otherwise it will be padded on the right.
 one of the patterns, that directory and all its members and subdirectories  
 will be assigned the new pattern. For example, the following would  
 assign 01664 to most files, but would use 01777 for directories named C<tmp>.  
3087    
3088      Tracer::SetPermissions($dirName, 'fig', 01664, '^tmp$' => 01777);  =item padChar (optional)
3089    
3090  The list is ordered, so the following would use 0777 for C<tmp1> and  Character to use for padding. The default is a space.
 0666 for C<tmp>, C<tmp2>, or C<tmp3>.  
3091    
3092      Tracer::SetPermissions($dirName, 'fig', 01664, '^tmp1' => 0777,  =item RETURN
                                                    '^tmp' => 0666);  
3093    
3094  Note that the pattern matches are all case-insensitive, and only directory  Returns a copy of the original string with the pad character added to the
3095  names are matched, not file names.  specified end so that it achieves the desired length.
3096    
3097  =back  =back
3098    
3099  =cut  =cut
3100    
3101  sub SetPermissions {  sub Pad {
3102      # Get the parameters.      # Get the parameters.
3103      my ($dirName, $group, $mask, @otherMasks) = @_;      my ($string, $len, $left, $padChar) = @_;
3104      # Set up for error recovery.      # Compute the padding character.
3105      eval {      if (! defined $padChar) {
3106          # Switch to the specified directory.          $padChar = " ";
         ChDir($dirName);  
         # Get the group ID.  
         my $gid = getgrnam($group);  
         # Get the mask for tracing.  
         my $traceMask = sprintf("%04o", $mask) . "($mask)";  
         Trace("Fixing permissions for directory $dirName using group $group($gid) and mask $traceMask.") if T(2);  
         my $fixCount = 0;  
         my $lookCount = 0;  
         # @dirs will be a stack of directories to be processed.  
         my @dirs = (getcwd());  
         while (scalar(@dirs) > 0) {  
             # Get the current directory.  
             my $dir = pop @dirs;  
             # Check for a match to one of the specified directory names. To do  
             # that, we need to pull the individual part of the name off of the  
             # whole path.  
             my $simpleName = $dir;  
             if ($dir =~ m!/([^/]+)$!) {  
                 $simpleName = $1;  
             }  
             Trace("Simple directory name for $dir is $simpleName.") if T(4);  
             # Search for a match.  
             my $match = 0;  
             my $i;  
             for ($i = 0; $i < $#otherMasks && ! $match; $i += 2) {  
                 my $pattern = $otherMasks[$i];  
                 if ($simpleName =~ /$pattern/i) {  
                     $match = 1;  
                 }  
3107              }              }
3108              # Check for a match. Note we use $i-1 because the loop added 2      # Compute the number of spaces needed.
3109              # before terminating due to the match.      my $needed = $len - length $string;
3110              if ($match && $otherMasks[$i-1] != $mask) {      # Copy the string into the return variable.
3111                  # This directory matches one of the incoming patterns, and it's      my $retVal = $string;
3112                  # a different mask, so we process it recursively with that mask.      # Only proceed if padding is needed.
3113                  SetPermissions($dir, $group, $otherMasks[$i-1], @otherMasks);      if ($needed > 0) {
3114            # Create the pad string.
3115            my $pad = $padChar x $needed;
3116            # Affix it to the return value.
3117            if ($left) {
3118                $retVal = $pad . $retVal;
3119              } else {              } else {
3120                  # Here we can process normally. Get all of the non-hidden members.              $retVal .= $pad;
                 my @submems = OpenDir($dir, 1);  
                 for my $submem (@submems) {  
                     # Get the full name.  
                     my $thisMem = "$dir/$submem";  
                     Trace("Checking member $thisMem.") if T(4);  
                     $lookCount++;  
                     if ($lookCount % 1000 == 0) {  
                         Trace("$lookCount members examined. Current is $thisMem. Mask is $traceMask") if T(3);  
                     }  
                     # Fix the group.  
                     chown -1, $gid, $thisMem;  
                     # Insure this member is not a symlink.  
                     if (! -l $thisMem) {  
                         # Get its info.  
                         my $fileInfo = stat $thisMem;  
                         # Only proceed if we got the info. Otherwise, it's a hard link  
                         # and we want to skip it anyway.  
                         if ($fileInfo) {  
                             my $fileMode = $fileInfo->mode;  
                             if (($fileMode & $mask) != $mask) {  
                                 # Fix this member.  
                                 $fileMode |= $mask;  
                                 chmod $fileMode, $thisMem;  
                                 $fixCount++;  
                             }  
                             # If it's a subdirectory, stack it.  
                             if (-d $thisMem) {  
                                 push @dirs, $thisMem;  
                             }  
3121                          }                          }
3122                      }                      }
3123        # Return the result.
3124        return $retVal;
3125                  }                  }
3126    
3127    =head3 EOF
3128    
3129    This is a constant that is lexically greater than any useful string.
3130    
3131    =cut
3132    
3133    sub EOF {
3134        return "\xFF\xFF\xFF\xFF\xFF";
3135              }              }
3136    
3137    =head3 TICK
3138    
3139        my @results = TICK($commandString);
3140    
3141    Perform a back-tick operation on a command. If this is a Windows environment, any leading
3142    dot-slash (C<./> will be removed. So, for example, if you were doing
3143    
3144        `./protein.cgi`
3145    
3146    from inside a CGI script, it would work fine in Unix, but would issue an error message
3147    in Windows complaining that C<'.'> is not a valid command. If instead you code
3148    
3149        TICK("./protein.cgi")
3150    
3151    it will work correctly in both environments.
3152    
3153    =over 4
3154    
3155    =item commandString
3156    
3157    The command string to pass to the system.
3158    
3159    =item RETURN
3160    
3161    Returns the standard output from the specified command, as a list.
3162    
3163    =back
3164    
3165    =cut
3166    #: Return Type @;
3167    sub TICK {
3168        # Get the parameters.
3169        my ($commandString) = @_;
3170        # Chop off the dot-slash if this is Windows.
3171        if ($FIG_Config::win_mode) {
3172            $commandString =~ s!^\./!!;
3173          }          }
3174          Trace("$lookCount files and directories processed, $fixCount fixed.") if T(2);      # Activate the command and return the result.
3175      };      return `$commandString`;
     # Check for an error.  
     if ($@) {  
         Confess("SetPermissions error: $@");  
3176      }      }
3177    
3178    
3179    =head3 CommaFormat
3180    
3181        my $formatted = Tracer::CommaFormat($number);
3182    
3183    Insert commas into a number.
3184    
3185    =over 4
3186    
3187    =item number
3188    
3189    A sequence of digits.
3190    
3191    =item RETURN
3192    
3193    Returns the same digits with commas strategically inserted.
3194    
3195    =back
3196    
3197    =cut
3198    
3199    sub CommaFormat {
3200        # Get the parameters.
3201        my ($number) = @_;
3202        # Pad the length up to a multiple of three.
3203        my $padded = "$number";
3204        $padded = " " . $padded while length($padded) % 3 != 0;
3205        # This is a fancy PERL trick. The parentheses in the SPLIT pattern
3206        # cause the delimiters to be included in the output stream. The
3207        # GREP removes the empty strings in between the delimiters.
3208        my $retVal = join(",", grep { $_ ne '' } split(/(...)/, $padded));
3209        # Clean out the spaces.
3210        $retVal =~ s/ //g;
3211        # Return the result.
3212        return $retVal;
3213  }  }
3214    
3215    
3216  =head3 CompareLists  =head3 CompareLists
3217    
3218  C<< my ($inserted, $deleted) = Tracer::CompareLists(\@newList, \@oldList, $keyIndex); >>      my ($inserted, $deleted) = Tracer::CompareLists(\@newList, \@oldList, $keyIndex);
3219    
3220  Compare two lists of tuples, and return a hash analyzing the differences. The lists  Compare two lists of tuples, and return a hash analyzing the differences. The lists
3221  are presumed to be sorted alphabetically by the value in the $keyIndex column.  are presumed to be sorted alphabetically by the value in the $keyIndex column.
# Line 2435  Line 3280 
3280      return ($inserted, $deleted);      return ($inserted, $deleted);
3281  }  }
3282    
3283  =head3 GetLine  =head3 Cmp
3284    
3285  C<< my @data = Tracer::GetLine($handle); >>      my $cmp = Tracer::Cmp($a, $b);
3286    
3287  Read a line of data from a tab-delimited file.  This method performs a universal sort comparison. Each value coming in is
3288    separated into a leading text part and a trailing number part. The text
3289    part is string compared, and if both parts are equal, then the number
3290    parts are compared numerically. A stream of just numbers or a stream of
3291    just strings will sort correctly, and a mixed stream will sort with the
3292    numbers first. Strings with a label and a number will sort in the
3293    expected manner instead of lexically.
3294    
3295  =over 4  =over 4
3296    
3297  =item handle  =item a
3298    
3299  Open file handle from which to read.  First item to compare.
3300    
3301    =item b
3302    
3303    Second item to compare.
3304    
3305  =item RETURN  =item RETURN
3306    
3307  Returns a list of the fields in the record read. The fields are presumed to be  Returns a negative number if the first item should sort first (is less), a positive
3308  tab-delimited. If we are at the end of the file, then an empty list will be  number if the first item should sort second (is greater), and a zero if the items are
3309  returned. If an empty line is read, a single list item consisting of a null  equal.
 string will be returned.  
3310    
3311  =back  =back
3312    
3313  =cut  =cut
3314    
3315  sub GetLine {  sub Cmp {
3316      # Get the parameters.      # Get the parameters.
3317      my ($handle) = @_;      my ($a, $b) = @_;
3318      # Declare the return variable.      # Declare the return value.
3319      my @retVal = ();      my $retVal;
3320      # Read from the file.      # Check for nulls.
3321      my $line = <$handle>;      if (! defined($a)) {
3322      # Only proceed if we found something.          $retVal = (! defined($b) ? 0 : -1);
3323      if (defined $line) {      } elsif (! defined($b)) {
3324          # Remove the new-line.          $retVal = 1;
         chomp $line;  
         # If the line is empty, return a single empty string; otherwise, parse  
         # it into fields.  
         if ($line eq "") {  
             push @retVal, "";  
3325          } else {          } else {
3326              push @retVal, split /\t/,$line;          # Here we have two real values. Parse the two strings.
3327            $a =~ /^(\D*)(\d*)$/;
3328            my $aParsed = [$1, $2];
3329            $b =~ /^(\D*)(\d*)$/;
3330            my $bParsed = [$1, $2];
3331            # Compare the string parts.
3332            $retVal = $aParsed->[0] cmp $bParsed->[0];
3333            if (! $retVal) {
3334                $retVal = $aParsed->[1] <=> $bParsed->[1];
3335          }          }
3336      }      }
3337      # Return the result.      # Return the result.
3338      return @retVal;      return $retVal;
3339  }  }
3340    
3341  =head3 PutLine  =head2 CGI Script Utilities
3342    
3343  C<< Tracer::PutLine($handle, \@fields); >>  =head3 ScriptSetup (deprecated)
3344    
3345  Write a line of data to a tab-delimited file. The specified field values will be      my ($cgi, $varHash) = ScriptSetup($noTrace);
3346  output in tab-separated form, with a trailing new-line.  
3347    Perform standard tracing and debugging setup for scripts. The value returned is
3348    the CGI object followed by a pre-built variable hash. At the end of the script,
3349    the client should call L</ScriptFinish> to output the web page.
3350    
3351    This method calls L</ETracing> to configure tracing, which allows the tracing
3352    to be configured via the emergency tracing form on the debugging control panel.
3353    Tracing will then be turned on automatically for all programs that use the L</ETracing>
3354    method, which includes every program that uses this method or L</StandardSetup>.
3355    
3356  =over 4  =over 4
3357    
3358  =item handle  =item noTrace (optional)
3359    
3360  Output file handle.  If specified, tracing will be suppressed. This is useful if the script wants to set up
3361    tracing manually.
3362    
3363  =item fields  =item RETURN
3364    
3365  List of field values.  Returns a two-element list consisting of a CGI query object and a variable hash for
3366    the output page.
3367    
3368  =back  =back
3369    
3370  =cut  =cut
3371    
3372  sub PutLine {  sub ScriptSetup {
3373      # Get the parameters.      # Get the parameters.
3374      my ($handle, $fields) = @_;      my ($noTrace) = @_;
3375      # Write the data.      # Get the CGI query object.
3376      print $handle join("\t", @{$fields}) . "\n";      my $cgi = CGI->new();
3377        # Set up tracing if it's not suppressed.
3378        ETracing($cgi) unless $noTrace;
3379        # Create the variable hash.
3380        my $varHash = { results => '' };
3381        # Return the query object and variable hash.
3382        return ($cgi, $varHash);
3383    }
3384    
3385    =head3 ScriptFinish (deprecated)
3386    
3387        ScriptFinish($webData, $varHash);
3388    
3389    Output a web page at the end of a script. Either the string to be output or the
3390    name of a template file can be specified. If the second parameter is omitted,
3391    it is assumed we have a string to be output; otherwise, it is assumed we have the
3392    name of a template file. The template should have the variable C<DebugData>
3393    specified in any form that invokes a standard script. If debugging mode is turned
3394    on, a form field will be put in that allows the user to enter tracing data.
3395    Trace messages will be placed immediately before the terminal C<BODY> tag in
3396    the output, formatted as a list.
3397    
3398    A typical standard script would loook like the following.
3399    
3400        BEGIN {
3401            # Print the HTML header.
3402            print "CONTENT-TYPE: text/html\n\n";
3403        }
3404        use Tracer;
3405        use CGI;
3406        use FIG;
3407        # ... more uses ...
3408    
3409        my ($cgi, $varHash) = ScriptSetup();
3410        eval {
3411            # ... get data from $cgi, put it in $varHash ...
3412        };
3413        if ($@) {
3414            Trace("Script Error: $@") if T(0);
3415        }
3416        ScriptFinish("Html/MyTemplate.html", $varHash);
3417    
3418    The idea here is that even if the script fails, you'll see trace messages and
3419    useful output.
3420    
3421    =over 4
3422    
3423    =item webData
3424    
3425    A string containing either the full web page to be written to the output or the
3426    name of a template file from which the page is to be constructed. If the name
3427    of a template file is specified, then the second parameter must be present;
3428    otherwise, it must be absent.
3429    
3430    =item varHash (optional)
3431    
3432    If specified, then a reference to a hash mapping variable names for a template
3433    to their values. The template file will be read into memory, and variable markers
3434    will be replaced by data in this hash reference.
3435    
3436    =back
3437    
3438    =cut
3439    
3440    sub ScriptFinish {
3441        # Get the parameters.
3442        my ($webData, $varHash) = @_;
3443        # Check for a template file situation.
3444        my $outputString;
3445        if (defined $varHash) {
3446            # Here we have a template file. We need to determine the template type.
3447            my $template;
3448            if ($FIG_Config::template_url && $webData =~ /\.php$/) {
3449                $template = "$FIG_Config::template_url/$webData";
3450            } else {
3451                $template = "<<$webData";
3452            }
3453            $outputString = PageBuilder::Build($template, $varHash, "Html");
3454        } else {
3455            # Here the user gave us a raw string.
3456            $outputString = $webData;
3457        }
3458        # Check for trace messages.
3459        if ($Destination ne "NONE" && $TraceLevel > 0) {
3460            # We have trace messages, so we want to put them at the end of the body. This
3461            # is either at the end of the whole string or at the beginning of the BODY
3462            # end-tag.
3463            my $pos = length $outputString;
3464            if ($outputString =~ m#</body>#gi) {
3465                $pos = (pos $outputString) - 7;
3466            }
3467            # If the trace messages were queued, we unroll them. Otherwise, we display the
3468            # destination.
3469            my $traceHtml;
3470            if ($Destination eq "QUEUE") {
3471                $traceHtml = QTrace('Html');
3472            } elsif ($Destination =~ /^>>(.+)$/) {
3473                # Here the tracing output it to a file. We code it as a hyperlink so the user
3474                # can copy the file name into the clipboard easily.
3475                my $actualDest = $1;
3476                $traceHtml = "<p>Tracing output to $actualDest.</p>\n";
3477            } else {
3478                # Here we have one of the special destinations.
3479                $traceHtml = "<P>Tracing output type is $Destination.</p>\n";
3480            }
3481            substr $outputString, $pos, 0, $traceHtml;
3482        }
3483        # Write the output string.
3484        print $outputString;
3485  }  }
3486    
3487  =head3 GenerateURL  =head3 GenerateURL
3488    
3489  C<< my $queryUrl = Tracer::GenerateURL($page, %parameters); >>      my $queryUrl = Tracer::GenerateURL($page, %parameters);
3490    
3491  Generate a GET-style URL for the specified page with the specified parameter  Generate a GET-style URL for the specified page with the specified parameter
3492  names and values. The values will be URL-escaped automatically. So, for  names and values. The values will be URL-escaped automatically. So, for
# Line 2521  Line 3496 
3496    
3497  would return  would return
3498    
3499      form.cgi?type=1&string=%22high%20pass%22%20or%20highway      form.cgi?type=1;string=%22high%20pass%22%20or%20highway
3500    
3501  =over 4  =over 4
3502    
# Line 2551  Line 3526 
3526      my @parmList = map { "$_=" . uri_escape($parameters{$_}) } keys %parameters;      my @parmList = map { "$_=" . uri_escape($parameters{$_}) } keys %parameters;
3527      # If the list is nonempty, tack it on.      # If the list is nonempty, tack it on.
3528      if (@parmList) {      if (@parmList) {
3529          $retVal .= "?" . join("&", @parmList);          $retVal .= "?" . join(";", @parmList);
3530        }
3531        # Return the result.
3532        return $retVal;
3533    }
3534    
3535    =head3 ApplyURL
3536    
3537        Tracer::ApplyURL($table, $target, $url);
3538    
3539    Run through a two-dimensional table (or more accurately, a list of lists), converting the
3540    I<$target> column to HTML text having a hyperlink to a URL in the I<$url> column. The
3541    URL column will be deleted by this process and the target column will be HTML-escaped.
3542    
3543    This provides a simple way to process the results of a database query into something
3544    displayable by combining a URL with text.
3545    
3546    =over 4
3547