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revision 1.61, Fri Jul 28 02:03:04 2006 UTC revision 1.103, Fri May 9 04:21:45 2008 UTC
# Line 1  Line 1 
1  #  # -*- perl -*-
2    ########################################################################
3  # Copyright (c) 2003-2006 University of Chicago and Fellowship  # Copyright (c) 2003-2006 University of Chicago and Fellowship
4  # for Interpretations of Genomes. All Rights Reserved.  # for Interpretations of Genomes. All Rights Reserved.
5  #  #
# Line 13  Line 14 
14  # at info@ci.uchicago.edu or the Fellowship for Interpretation of  # at info@ci.uchicago.edu or the Fellowship for Interpretation of
15  # Genomes at veronika@thefig.info or download a copy from  # Genomes at veronika@thefig.info or download a copy from
16  # http://www.theseed.org/LICENSE.TXT.  # http://www.theseed.org/LICENSE.TXT.
17  #  ########################################################################
18    
19  package Tracer;  package Tracer;
20    
21      require Exporter;      require Exporter;
22      @ISA = ('Exporter');      @ISA = ('Exporter');
23      @EXPORT = qw(Trace T TSetup QTrace Confess Cluck Min Max Assert Open OpenDir TICK StandardSetup ScriptSetup ScriptFinish Insure ChDir);      @EXPORT = qw(Trace T TSetup QTrace Confess Cluck Min Max Assert Open OpenDir TICK StandardSetup EmergencyKey ETracing Constrain Insure ChDir Emergency Warn);
24      @EXPORT_OK = qw(GetFile GetOptions Merge MergeOptions ParseCommand ParseRecord UnEscape Escape);      @EXPORT_OK = qw(GetFile GetOptions Merge MergeOptions ParseCommand ParseRecord UnEscape Escape PrintLine PutLine);
25      use strict;      use strict;
26      use Carp qw(longmess croak);      use Carp qw(longmess croak carp);
27      use CGI;      use CGI;
28      use Cwd;      use Cwd;
29      use FIG_Config;      use FIG_Config;
# Line 32  Line 33 
33      use File::Path;      use File::Path;
34      use File::stat;      use File::stat;
35      use LWP::UserAgent;      use LWP::UserAgent;
36        use Time::HiRes 'gettimeofday';
37        use URI::Escape;
38        use Time::Local;
39        use POSIX qw(strftime);
40        use Time::Zone;
41    
42    
43  =head1 Tracing and Debugging Helpers  =head1 Tracing and Debugging Helpers
44    
45  =head2 Introduction  =head2 Tracing
46    
47  This package provides simple tracing for debugging and reporting purposes. To use it simply call the  This package provides simple tracing for debugging and reporting purposes. To use it simply call the
48  L</TSetup> method to set the options and call L</Trace> to write out trace messages. Each trace  L</TSetup> or L</ETracing> method to set the options and call L</Trace> to write out trace messages.
49  message has a I<trace level> and I<category> associated with it. In addition, the tracing package itself  L</TSetup> and L</ETracing> both establish a I<trace level> and a list of I<categories>. Similarly,
50  has a list of categories and a single trace level set by the B<TSetup> method. Only messages whose trace  each trace message has a I<trace level> and I<category> associated with it. Only messages whose trace
51  level is less than or equal to this package's trace level and whose category is activated will  level is less than or equal to the setup trace level and whose category is activated will
52  be written. Thus, a higher trace level on a message indicates that the message  be written. Thus, a higher trace level on a message indicates that the message
53  is less likely to be seen. A higher trace level passed to B<TSetup> means more trace messages will  is less likely to be seen, while a higher trace level passed to B<TSetup> means more trace messages will
54  appear. To generate a trace message, use the following syntax.  appear.
55    
56    =head3 Putting Trace Messages in Your Code
57    
58  C<< Trace($message) if T(errors => 4); >>  To generate a trace message, use the following syntax.
59    
60        Trace($message) if T(errors => 4);
61    
62  This statement will produce a trace message if the trace level is 4 or more and the C<errors>  This statement will produce a trace message if the trace level is 4 or more and the C<errors>
63  category is active. Note that the special category C<main> is always active, so  category is active. There is a special category C<main> that is always active, so
64    
65  C<< Trace($message) if T(main => 4); >>      Trace($message) if T(main => 4);
66    
67  will trace if the trace level is 4 or more.  will trace if the trace level is 4 or more.
68    
# Line 59  Line 70 
70  following call is made in the B<Sprout> package, it will appear if the C<Sprout> category is  following call is made in the B<Sprout> package, it will appear if the C<Sprout> category is
71  active and the trace level is 2 or more.  active and the trace level is 2 or more.
72    
73  C<< Trace($message) if T(2); >>      Trace($message) if T(2);
74    
75    In scripts, where no package name is available, the category defaults to C<main>.
76    
77    =head3 Custom Tracing
78    
79    Many programs have customized tracing configured using the L</TSetup> method. This is no longer
80    the preferred method, but a knowledge of how custom tracing works can make the more modern
81    L</Emergency Tracing> easier to understand.
82    
83  To set up tracing, you call the L</TSetup> method. The method takes as input a trace level, a list  To set up custom tracing, you call the L</TSetup> method. The method takes as input a trace level,
84  of category names, and a set of options. The trace level and list of category names are  a list of category names, and a destination. The trace level and list of category names are
85  specified as a space-delimited string. Thus  specified as a space-delimited string. Thus
86    
87  C<< TSetup('3 errors Sprout ERDB', 'HTML'); >>      TSetup('3 errors Sprout ERDB', 'TEXT');
88    
89  sets the trace level to 3, activates the C<errors>, C<Sprout>, and C<ERDB> categories, and  sets the trace level to 3, activates the C<errors>, C<Sprout>, and C<ERDB> categories, and
90  specifies that messages should be output as HTML paragraphs.  specifies that messages should be sent to the standard output.
91    
92  To turn on tracing for ALL categories, use an asterisk. The call below sets every category to  To turn on tracing for ALL categories, use an asterisk. The call below sets every category to
93  level 3 and writes the output to the standard error output. This sort of thing might be  level 3 and writes the output to the standard error output. This sort of thing might be
94  useful in a CGI environment.  useful in a CGI environment.
95    
96  C<< TSetup('3 *', 'WARN'); >>      TSetup('3 *', 'WARN');
97    
98  In addition to HTML and file output for trace messages, you can specify that the trace messages  In addition standard error and file output for trace messages, you can specify that the trace messages
99  be queued. The messages can then be retrieved by calling the L</QTrace> method. This approach  be queued. The messages can then be retrieved by calling the L</QTrace> method. This approach
100  is useful if you are building a web page. Instead of having the trace messages interspersed with  is useful if you are building a web page. Instead of having the trace messages interspersed with
101  the page output, they can be gathered together and displayed at the end of the page. This makes  the page output, they can be gathered together and displayed at the end of the page. This makes
102  it easier to debug page formatting problems.  it easier to debug page formatting problems.
103    
104  Finally, you can specify that all trace messages be emitted as warnings.  Finally, you can specify that all trace messages be emitted to a file, or the standard output and
105    a file at the same time. To trace to a file, specify the filename with an output character in front
106    of it.
107    
108        TSetup('4 SQL', ">$fileName");
109    
110    To trace to the standard output and a file at the same time, put a C<+> in front of the angle
111    bracket.
112    
113        TSetup('3 *', "+>$fileName");
114    
115  The flexibility of tracing makes it superior to simple use of directives like C<die> and C<warn>.  The flexibility of tracing makes it superior to simple use of directives like C<die> and C<warn>.
116  Tracer calls can be left in the code with minimal overhead and then turned on only when needed.  Tracer calls can be left in the code with minimal overhead and then turned on only when needed.
117  Thus, debugging information is available and easily retrieved even when the application is  Thus, debugging information is available and easily retrieved even when the application is
118  being used out in the field.  being used out in the field.
119    
120    =head3 Trace Levels
121    
122  There is no hard and fast rule on how to use trace levels. The following is therefore only  There is no hard and fast rule on how to use trace levels. The following is therefore only
123  a suggestion.  a suggestion.
124    
# Line 119  Line 149 
149    
150  =back  =back
151    
152    The format of trace messages is important because some utilities analyze trace files.
153    There are three fields-- the time stamp, the category name, and the text.
154    The time stamp is between square brackets and the category name between angle brackets.
155    After the category name there is a colon (C<:>) followed by the message text.
156    If the square brackets or angle brackets are missing, then the trace management
157    utilities assume that they are encountering a set of pre-formatted lines.
158    
159    Note, however, that this formatting is done automatically by the tracing functions. You
160    only need to know about it if you want to parse a trace file.
161    
162    =head3 Emergency Tracing
163    
164    Sometimes, you need a way for tracing to happen automatically without putting parameters
165    in a form or on the command line. Emergency tracing does this. You invoke emergency tracing
166    from the debug form, which is accessed from the [[DebugConsole]]. Emergency tracing requires
167    that you specify a tracing key. For command-line tools, the key is
168    taken from the C<TRACING> environment variable. For web services, the key is taken from
169    a cookie. Either way, the key tells the tracing facility who you are, so that you control
170    the tracing in your environment without stepping on other users.
171    
172    The key can be anything you want. If you don't have a key, the C<SetPassword> page will
173    generate one for you.
174    
175    You can activate and de-activate emergency tracing from the debugging control panel, as
176    well as display the trace file itself.
177    
178    To enable emergency tracing in your code, call
179    
180        ETracing($cgi)
181    
182    from a web script and
183    
184        ETracing()
185    
186    from a command-line script.
187    
188    The web script will look for the tracing key in the cookies, and the command-line
189    script will look for it in the C<TRACING> environment variable. If you are
190    using the L</StandardSetup> method or a [[WebApplication]], emergency tracing
191    will be configured automatically.
192    
193  =cut  =cut
194    
195  # Declare the configuration variables.  # Declare the configuration variables.
196    
197  my $Destination = "NONE";   # Description of where to send the trace output.  my $Destination = "WARN";   # Description of where to send the trace output.
198  my $TeeFlag = 0;            # TRUE if output is going to a file and to the  my $TeeFlag = 0;            # TRUE if output is going to a file and to the
199                              # standard output                              # standard output
200  my %Categories = ( main => 1 );  my %Categories = ( main => 1 );
201                              # hash of active category names                              # hash of active category names
202    my @LevelNames = qw(error warn notice info detail);
203  my $TraceLevel = 0;         # trace level; a higher trace level produces more  my $TraceLevel = 0;         # trace level; a higher trace level produces more
204                              # messages                              # messages
205  my @Queue = ();             # queued list of trace messages.  my @Queue = ();             # queued list of trace messages.
206  my $LastCategory = "main";  # name of the last category interrogated  my $LastCategory = "main";  # name of the last category interrogated
207    my $LastLevel = 0;          # level of the last test call
208  my $SetupCount = 0;         # number of times TSetup called  my $SetupCount = 0;         # number of times TSetup called
209  my $AllTrace = 0;           # TRUE if we are tracing all categories.  my $AllTrace = 0;           # TRUE if we are tracing all categories.
210    my $SavedCGI;               # CGI object passed to ETracing
211    umask 2;                    # Fix the damn umask so everything is group-writable.
212    
213    =head2 Tracing Methods
214    
215    =head3 Setups
216    
217        my $count = Tracer::Setups();
218    
219    Return the number of times L</TSetup> has been called.
220    
221    This method allows for the creation of conditional tracing setups where, for example, we
222    may want to set up tracing if nobody else has done it before us.
223    
224    =cut
225    
226  =head2 Public Methods  sub Setups {
227        return $SetupCount;
228    }
229    
230  =head3 TSetup  =head3 TSetup
231    
232  C<< TSetup($categoryList, $target); >>      TSetup($categoryList, $target);
233    
234  This method is used to specify the trace options. The options are stored as package data  This method is used to specify the trace options. The options are stored as package data
235  and interrogated by the L</Trace> and L</T> methods.  and interrogated by the L</Trace> and L</T> methods.
# Line 189  Line 279 
279          }          }
280      }      }
281      # Now we need to process the destination information. The most important special      # Now we need to process the destination information. The most important special
282      # cases are the single ">", which requires we clear the file first, and the      # case is when we're writing to a file. This is indicated by ">" (overwrite) and
283      # "+" prefix which indicates a double echo.      # ">>" (append). A leading "+" for either indicates that we are also writing to
284        # the standard output (tee mode).
285      if ($target =~ m/^\+?>>?/) {      if ($target =~ m/^\+?>>?/) {
286          if ($target =~ m/^\+/) {          if ($target =~ m/^\+/) {
287              $TeeFlag = 1;              $TeeFlag = 1;
288              $target = substr($target, 1);              $target = substr($target, 1);
289          }          }
290          if ($target =~ m/^>[^>]/) {          if ($target =~ m/^>[^>]/) {
291                # We need to initialize the file (which clears it).
292              open TRACEFILE, $target;              open TRACEFILE, $target;
293              print TRACEFILE Now() . " Tracing initialized.\n";              print TRACEFILE "[" . Now() . "] [notice] [Tracer] Tracing initialized.\n";
294              close TRACEFILE;              close TRACEFILE;
295                # Set to append mode now that the file has been cleared.
296              $Destination = ">$target";              $Destination = ">$target";
297          } else {          } else {
298              $Destination = $target;              $Destination = $target;
# Line 211  Line 304 
304      $SetupCount++;      $SetupCount++;
305  }  }
306    
307  =head3 StandardSetup  =head3 SetLevel
308    
309  C<< my ($options, @parameters) = StandardSetup(\@categories, \%options, $parmHelp, @ARGV); >>      Tracer::SetLevel($newLevel);
310    
311  This method performs standard command-line parsing and tracing setup. The return  Modify the trace level. A higher trace level will cause more messages to appear.
 values are a hash of the command-line options and a list of the positional  
 parameters. Tracing is automatically set up and the command-line options are  
 validated.  
312    
313  This is a complex method that does a lot of grunt work. The parameters can  =over 4
 be more easily understood, however, once they are examined individually.  
314    
315  The I<categories> parameter is the most obtuse. It is a reference to a list of  =item newLevel
 special-purpose tracing categories. Most tracing categories are PERL package  
 names. So, for example, if you wanted to turn on tracing inside the B<Sprout>,  
 B<ERDB>, and B<SproutLoad> packages, you would specify the categories  
316    
317      ["Sprout", "SproutLoad", "ERDB"]  Proposed new trace level.
318    
319  This would cause trace messages in the specified three packages to appear in  =back
 the output. There are threer special tracing categories that are automatically  
 handled by this method. In other words, if you used L</TSetup> you would need  
 to include these categories manually, but if you use this method they are turned  
 on automatically.  
320    
321  =over 4  =cut
322    
323  =item FIG  sub SetLevel {
324        $TraceLevel = $_[0];
325    }
326    
327  Turns on trace messages inside the B<FIG> package.  =head3 ParseDate
328    
329  =item SQL      my $time = Tracer::ParseDate($dateString);
330    
331  Traces SQL commands and activity.  Convert a date into a PERL time number. This method expects a date-like string
332    and parses it into a number. The string must be vaguely date-like or it will
333    return an undefined value. Our requirement is that a month and day be
334    present and that three pieces of the date string (time of day, month and day,
335    year) be separated by likely delimiters, such as spaces, commas, and such-like.
336    
337  =item Tracer  If a time of day is present, it must be in military time with two digits for
338    everything but the hour.
339    
340  Traces error messages and call stacks.  The year must be exactly four digits.
341    
342  =back  Additional stuff can be in the string. We presume it's time zones or weekdays or something
343    equally innocuous. This means, however, that a sufficiently long sentence with date-like
344    parts in it may be interpreted as a date. Hopefully this will not be a problem.
345    
346  C<SQL> is only turned on if the C<-sql> option is specified in the command line.  It should be guaranteed that this method will parse the output of the L</Now> function.
 The trace level is specified using the C<-trace> command-line option. For example,  
 the following command line for C<TransactFeatures> turns on SQL tracing and runs  
 all tracing at level 3.  
347    
348      TransactFeatures -trace=3 -sql register ../xacts IDs.tbl  The parameters are as follows.
349    
350  Standard tracing is output to the standard output and echoed to the file  =over 4
 C<trace>I<$$>C<.log> in the FIG temporary directory, where I<$$> is the  
 process ID. You can also specify the C<user> parameter to put a user ID  
 instead of a process ID in the trace file name. So, for example  
351    
352  The default trace level is 2. To get all messages, specify a trace level of 4.  =item dateString
 For a genome-by-genome update, use 3.  
353    
354      TransactFeatures -trace=3 -sql -user=Bruce register ../xacts IDs.tbl  The date string to convert.
355    
356  would send the trace output to C<traceBruce.log> in the temporary directory.  =item RETURN
357    
358  The I<options> parameter is a reference to a hash containing the command-line  Returns a PERL time, that is, a number of seconds since the epoch, or C<undef> if
359  options, their default values, and an explanation of what they mean. Command-line  the date string is invalid. A valid date string must contain a month and day.
 options may be in the form of switches or keywords. In the case of a switch, the  
 option value is 1 if it is specified and 0 if it is not specified. In the case  
 of a keyword, the value is separated from the option name by an equal sign. You  
 can see this last in the command-line example above.  
360    
361  You can specify a different default trace level by setting C<$options->{trace}>  =back
 prior to calling this method.  
362    
363  An example at this point would help. Consider, for example, the command-line utility  =cut
 C<TransactFeatures>. It accepts a list of positional parameters plus the options  
 C<safe>, C<noAlias>, C<start>, and C<tblFiles>. To start up this command, we execute  
 the following code.  
364    
365      my ($options, @parameters) = Tracer::StandardSetup(["DocUtils"],  # Universal month conversion table.
366                          { safe => [0, "use database transactions"],  use constant MONTHS => {    Jan =>  0, January   =>  0, '01' =>  0,  '1' =>  0,
367                            noAlias => [0, "do not expect aliases in CHANGE transactions"],                              Feb =>  1, February  =>  1, '02' =>  1,  '2' =>  1,
368                            start => [' ', "start with this genome"],                              Mar =>  2, March     =>  2, '03' =>  2,  '3' =>  2,
369                            tblFiles => [0, "output TBL files containing the corrected IDs"] },                              Apr =>  3, April     =>  3, '04' =>  3,  '4' =>  3,
370                          "command transactionDirectory IDfile",                              May =>  4, May       =>  4, '05' =>  4,  '5' =>  4,
371                        @ARGV);                              Jun =>  5, June      =>  5, '06' =>  5,  '6' =>  5,
372                                Jul =>  6, July      =>  6, '07' =>  6,  '7' =>  6,
373                                Aug =>  7, August    =>  7, '08' =>  7,  '8' =>  7,
374                                Sep =>  8, September =>  8, '09' =>  8,  '9' =>  8,
375                                Oct =>  9, October  =>   9, '10' =>  9,
376                                Nov => 10, November =>  10, '11' => 10,
377                                Dec => 11, December =>  11, '12' => 11
378                            };
379    
380    sub ParseDate {
381        # Get the parameters.
382        my ($dateString) = @_;
383        # Declare the return variable.
384        my $retVal;
385        # Find the month and day of month. There are two ways that can happen. We check for the
386        # numeric style first. That way, if the user's done something like "Sun 12/22", then we
387        # won't be fooled into thinking the month is Sunday.
388        if ($dateString =~ m#\b(\d{1,2})/(\d{1,2})\b# || $dateString =~ m#\b(\w+)\s(\d{1,2})\b#) {
389            my ($mon, $mday) = (MONTHS->{$1}, $2);
390            # Insist that the month and day are valid.
391            if (defined($mon) && $2 >= 1 && $2 <= 31) {
392                # Find the time.
393                my ($hour, $min, $sec) = (0, 0, 0);
394                if ($dateString =~ /\b(\d{1,2}):(\d{2}):(\d{2})\b/) {
395                    ($hour, $min, $sec) = ($1, $2, $3);
396                }
397                # Find the year.
398                my $year;
399                if ($dateString =~ /\b(\d{4})\b/) {
400                    $year = $1;
401                } else {
402                    # Get the default year, which is this one. Note we must convert it to
403                    # the four-digit value expected by "timelocal".
404                    (undef, undef, undef, undef, undef, $year) = localtime();
405                    $year += 1900;
406                }
407                $retVal = timelocal($sec, $min, $hour, $mday, $mon, $year);
408            }
409        }
410        # Return the result.
411        return $retVal;
412    }
413    
414  The call to C<ParseCommand> specifies the default values for the options and  =head3 LogErrors
 stores the actual options in a hash that is returned as C<$options>. The  
 positional parameters are returned in C<@parameters>.  
415    
416  The following is a sample command line for C<TransactFeatures>.      Tracer::LogErrors($fileName);
417    
418      TransactFeatures -trace=2 -noAlias register ../xacts IDs.tbl  Route the standard error output to a log file.
419    
420  In this case, C<register>, C<../xacts>, and C<IDs.tbl> are the positional  =over 4
 parameters, and would find themselves in I<@parameters> after executing the  
 above code fragment. The tracing would be set to level 2, and the categories  
 would be C<FIG>, C<Tracer>, and <DocUtils>. C<FIG> and C<Tracer> are standard,  
 and C<DocUtils> was included because it came in within the first parameter  
 to this method. The I<$options> hash would be  
421    
422      { trace => 2, sql => 0, safe => 0,  =item fileName
       noAlias => 1, start => ' ', tblFiles => 0 }  
423    
424  Use of C<StandardSetup> in this way provides a simple way of performing  Name of the file to receive the error output.
 standard tracing setup and command-line parsing. Note that the caller is  
 not even aware of the command-line switches C<-trace> and C<-sql>, which  
 are used by this method to control the tracing. If additional tracing features  
 need to be added in the future, they can be processed by this method without  
 upsetting the command-line utilities.  
425    
426  If the C<background> option is specified on the command line, then the  =back
 standard and error outputs will be directed to files in the temporary  
 directory, using the same suffix as the trace file. So, if the command  
 line specified  
427    
428      -user=Bruce -background  =cut
429    
430  then the trace output would go to C<traceBruce.log>, the standard output to  sub LogErrors {
431  C<outBruce.log>, and the error output to C<errBruce.log>. This is designed to      # Get the file name.
432  simplify starting a command in the background.      my ($fileName) = @_;
433        # Open the file as the standard error output.
434        open STDERR, '>', $fileName;
435    }
436    
437  Finally, if the special option C<-h> is specified, the option names will  =head3 Trace
 be traced at level 0 and the program will exit without processing.  
 This provides a limited help capability. For example, if the user enters  
438    
439      TransactFeatures -h      Trace($message);
440    
441  he would see the following output.  Write a trace message to the target location specified in L</TSetup>. If there has not been
442    any prior call to B<TSetup>.
443    
444      TransactFeatures [options] command transactionDirectory IDfile  =over 4
         -trace    tracing level (default 2)  
         -sql      trace SQL commands  
         -safe     use database transactions  
         -noAlias  do not expect aliases in CHANGE transactions  
         -start    start with this genome  
         -tblFiles output TBL files containing the corrected IDs  
445    
446  The caller has the option of modifying the tracing scheme by placing a value  =item message
 for C<trace> in the incoming options hash. The default value can be overridden,  
 or the tracing to the standard output can be turned off by suffixing a minus  
 sign to the trace level. So, for example,  
447    
448      { trace => [0, "tracing level (default 0)"],  Message to write.
        ...  
449    
450  would set the default trace level to 0 instead of 2, while  =back
451    
452      { trace => ["2-", "tracing level (default 2)"],  =cut
        ...  
453    
454  would leave the default at 2, but trace only to the log file, not to the  sub Trace {
455  standard output.      # Get the parameters.
456        my ($message) = @_;
457        # Strip off any line terminators at the end of the message. We will add
458        # new-line stuff ourselves.
459        my $stripped = Strip($message);
460        # Compute the caller information.
461        my ($callPackage, $callFile, $callLine) = caller();
462        my $callFileTitle = basename($callFile);
463        # Check the caller.
464        my $callerInfo = ($callFileTitle ne "Tracer.pm" ? " [$callFileTitle $callLine]" : "");
465        # Get the timestamp.
466        my $timeStamp = Now();
467        # Build the prefix.
468        my $level = $LevelNames[$LastLevel] || "($LastLevel)";
469        my $prefix = "[$timeStamp] [$level] [$LastCategory]$callerInfo";
470        # Format the message.
471        my $formatted = "$prefix $stripped";
472        # Process according to the destination.
473        if ($Destination eq "TEXT") {
474            # Write the message to the standard output.
475            print "$formatted\n";
476        } elsif ($Destination eq "ERROR") {
477            # Write the message to the error output. Here, we want our prefix fields.
478            print STDERR "$formatted\n";
479        } elsif ($Destination eq "WARN") {
480            # Emit the message to the standard error output. It is presumed that the
481            # error logger will add its own prefix fields, the notable exception being
482            # the caller info.
483            print STDERR "$callerInfo$stripped\n";
484        } elsif ($Destination eq "QUEUE") {
485            # Push the message into the queue.
486            push @Queue, "$formatted";
487        } elsif ($Destination eq "HTML") {
488            # Convert the message to HTML and write it to the standard output.
489            my $escapedMessage = CGI::escapeHTML($stripped);
490            print "<p>$timeStamp $LastCategory $LastLevel: $escapedMessage</p>\n";
491        } elsif ($Destination =~ m/^>>/) {
492            # Write the trace message to an output file.
493            open(TRACING, $Destination) || die "Tracing open for \"$Destination\" failed: $!";
494            print TRACING "$formatted\n";
495            close TRACING;
496            # If the Tee flag is on, echo it to the standard output.
497            if ($TeeFlag) {
498                print "$formatted\n";
499            }
500        }
501    }
502    
503  The parameters to this method are as follows.  =head3 T
504    
505  =over 4      my $switch = T($category, $traceLevel);
506    
507  =item categories      or
508    
509  Reference to a list of tracing category names. These should be names of      my $switch = T($traceLevel);
 packages whose internal workings will need to be debugged to get the  
 command working.  
510    
511  =item options  Return TRUE if the trace level is at or above a specified value and the specified category
512    is active, else FALSE. If no category is specified, the caller's package name is used.
513    
514  Reference to a hash containing the legal options for the current command mapped  =over 4
 to their default values and descriptions. The user can override the defaults  
 by specifying the options as command-line switches prefixed by a hyphen.  
 Tracing-related options may be added to this hash. If the C<-h> option is  
 specified on the command line, the option descriptions will be used to  
 explain the options. To turn off tracing to the standard output, add a  
 minus sign to the value for C<trace> (see above).  
515    
516  =item parmHelp  =item category
517    
518  A string that vaguely describes the positional parameters. This is used  Category to which the message belongs. If not specified, the caller's package name is
519  if the user specifies the C<-h> option.  used.
520    
521  =item argv  =item traceLevel
522    
523  List of command line parameters, including the option switches, which must  Relevant tracing level.
 precede the positional parameters and be prefixed by a hyphen.  
524    
525  =item RETURN  =item RETURN
526    
527  Returns a list. The first element of the list is the reference to a hash that  TRUE if a message at the specified trace level would appear in the trace, else FALSE.
 maps the command-line option switches to their values. These will either be the  
 default values or overrides specified on the command line. The remaining  
 elements of the list are the position parameters, in order.  
528    
529  =back  =back
530    
531  =cut  =cut
532    
533  sub StandardSetup {  sub T {
534        # Declare the return variable.
535        my $retVal = 0;
536        # Only proceed if tracing is turned on.
537        if ($Destination ne "NONE") {
538      # Get the parameters.      # Get the parameters.
539      my ($categories, $options, $parmHelp, @argv) = @_;          my ($category, $traceLevel) = @_;
540      # Add the tracing options.          if (!defined $traceLevel) {
541      if (! exists $options->{trace}) {              # Here we have no category, so we need to get the calling package.
542          $options->{trace} = [2, "tracing level"];              # The calling package is normally the first parameter. If it is
543      }              # omitted, the first parameter will be the tracelevel. So, the
544      $options->{sql} = [0, "turn on SQL tracing"];              # first thing we do is shift the so-called category into the
545      $options->{h} = [0, "display command-line options"];              # $traceLevel variable where it belongs.
546      $options->{user} = [$$, "trace log file name suffix"];              $traceLevel = $category;
547      $options->{background} = [0, "spool standard and error output"];              my ($package, $fileName, $line) = caller;
548      # Create a parsing hash from the options hash. The parsing hash              # If there is no calling package, we default to "main".
549      # contains the default values rather than the default value              if (!$package) {
550      # and the description. While we're at it, we'll memorize the                  $category = "main";
551      # length of the longest option name.              } else {
552                    my @cats = split /::/, $package;
553                    $category = $cats[$#cats];
554                }
555            }
556            # Save the category name and level.
557            $LastCategory = $category;
558            $LastLevel = $traceLevel;
559            # Convert it to lower case before we hash it.
560            $category = lc $category;
561            # Validate the trace level.
562            if (ref $traceLevel) {
563                Confess("Bad trace level.");
564            } elsif (ref $TraceLevel) {
565                Confess("Bad trace config.");
566            }
567            # Make the check. Note that level 0 shows even if the category is turned off.
568            $retVal = ($traceLevel <= $TraceLevel && ($traceLevel == 0 || $AllTrace || exists $Categories{$category}));
569        }
570        # Return the computed result.
571        return $retVal;
572    }
573    
574    =head3 QTrace
575    
576        my $data = QTrace($format);
577    
578    Return the queued trace data in the specified format.
579    
580    =over 4
581    
582    =item format
583    
584    C<html> to format the data as an HTML list, C<text> to format it as straight text.
585    
586    =back
587    
588    =cut
589    
590    sub QTrace {
591        # Get the parameter.
592        my ($format) = @_;
593        # Create the return variable.
594        my $retVal = "";
595        # Only proceed if there is an actual queue.
596        if (@Queue) {
597            # Process according to the format.
598            if ($format =~ m/^HTML$/i) {
599                # Convert the queue into an HTML list.
600                $retVal = "<ul>\n";
601                for my $line (@Queue) {
602                    my $escapedLine = CGI::escapeHTML($line);
603                    $retVal .= "<li>$escapedLine</li>\n";
604                }
605                $retVal .= "</ul>\n";
606            } elsif ($format =~ m/^TEXT$/i) {
607                # Convert the queue into a list of text lines.
608                $retVal = join("\n", @Queue) . "\n";
609            }
610            # Clear the queue.
611            @Queue = ();
612        }
613        # Return the formatted list.
614        return $retVal;
615    }
616    
617    =head3 Confess
618    
619        Confess($message);
620    
621    Trace the call stack and abort the program with the specified message. When used with
622    the OR operator and the L</Assert> method, B<Confess> can function as a debugging assert.
623    So, for example
624    
625        Assert($recNum >= 0) || Confess("Invalid record number $recNum.");
626    
627    Will abort the program with a stack trace if the value of C<$recNum> is negative.
628    
629    =over 4
630    
631    =item message
632    
633    Message to include in the trace.
634    
635    =back
636    
637    =cut
638    
639    sub Confess {
640        # Get the parameters.
641        my ($message) = @_;
642        # Set up the category and level.
643        $LastCategory = "(confess)";
644        $LastLevel = 0;
645        if (! defined($FIG_Config::no_tool_hdr)) {
646            # Here we have a tool header. Display its length so that the user can adjust the line numbers.
647            my $toolHeaderFile = "$FIG_Config::fig_disk/dist/releases/current/$FIG_Config::arch/tool_hdr";
648            # Only proceed if the tool header file is actually present.
649            if (-f $toolHeaderFile) {
650                my $fh;
651                if (open $fh, "<$toolHeaderFile") {
652                    my @lines = <$fh>;
653                    Trace("Tool header has " . scalar(@lines) . " lines.");
654                }
655            }
656        }
657        # Trace the call stack.
658        Cluck($message);
659        # Abort the program.
660        croak(">>> $message");
661    }
662    
663    =head3 Warn
664    
665        Warn($message);
666    
667    This method traces an important message. If an RSS feed is configured
668    (via I<FIG_Config::error_feed>) and the tracing destination is C<WARN>,
669    then the message will be echoed to the feed. In general, a tracing
670    destination of C<WARN> indicates that the caller is running as a web
671    service in a production environment; however, this is not a requirement.
672    
673    To force warnings into the RSS feed even when the tracing destination
674    is not C<WARN>, simply specify the C<Feed> tracing module. This can be
675    configured automatically when L</StandardSetup> is used.
676    
677    The L</Cluck> method calls this one for its final message. Since
678    L</Confess> calls L</Cluck>, this means that any error which is caught
679    and confessed will put something in the feed. This insures that someone
680    will be alerted relatively quickly when a failure occurs.
681    
682    =over 4
683    
684    =item message
685    
686    Message to be traced.
687    
688    =back
689    
690    =cut
691    
692    sub Warn {
693        # Get the parameters.
694        my ($message) = @_;
695        # Trace the message.
696        Trace($message);
697        # Check for feed forcing.
698        my $forceFeed = exists $Categories{feed};
699        # An error here would be disastrous. Note, however, that we aren't too worried
700        # about losing events. The error log is always available for the occasions where
701        # we mess up. Note that if debug mode is specified, we do this stuff even in a
702        # test environment.
703        eval {
704            # Do we need to put this in the RSS feed?
705            if ($FIG_Config::error_feed && ($Destination eq 'WARN' || $forceFeed)) {
706                # Yes. We now need to compute the date, the link, and the title.
707                # First, the date, in a very specific format.
708                my $date = strftime("%a, %02e %b %H:%M:%S %Y ", localtime) .
709                    (tz_local_offset() / 30);
710                # Environment data goes in here. We start with the date.
711                my $environment = "$date.  ";
712                # If we need to recap the message (because it's too long to be a title), we'll
713                # put it in here.
714                my $recap;
715                # Copy the message and remove excess space.
716                my $title = $message;
717                $title =~ s/\s+/ /gs;
718                # If it's too long, we have to split it up.
719                if (length $title > 60) {
720                    # Put the full message in the environment string.
721                    $recap = $title;
722                    # Excerpt it as the title.
723                    $title = substr($title, 0, 50) . "...";
724                }
725                # If we have a CGI object, then this is a web error. Otherwise, it's
726                # command-line.
727                if (defined $SavedCGI) {
728                    # We're in a web service. The environment is the user's IP, and the link
729                    # is the URL that got us here.
730                    my $key = $ENV{HTTP_X_FORWARDED_FOR} || $ENV{REMOTE_ADDR};
731                    $environment .= "Event Reported at IP address $key.";
732                    my $url = $SavedCGI->url(-full => 1, -query => 1);
733                    # We need the user agent string and (if available) the referrer.
734                    # The referrer will be the link.
735                    $environment .= "User Agent $ENV{HTTP_USER_AGENT}";
736                    if ($ENV{HTTP_REFERER}) {
737                        my $link = $ENV{HTTP_REFERER};
738                        $environment .= " referred from <a href=\"$link\">$link</a>.";
739                    } else {
740                        $environment .= " referrer unknown.";
741                    }
742                    # Close off the sentence with the original link.
743                    $environment .= " URL of error is <a href=\"$url\">$url</a>.";
744                } else {
745                    # No CGI object, so we're a command-line tool. Use the tracing
746                    # key and the PID as the user identifier, and add the command.
747                    my $key = EmergencyKey();
748                    $environment .= "Event Reported by $key Process $$. Command $ENV{_}.";
749                }
750                # Build a GUID. We use the current time, the title, and the process ID,
751                # then digest the result.
752                my $guid = Digest::MD5::md5_base64(gettimeofday(), $title, $$);
753                # Finally, the description. This is a stack trace plus various environmental stuff.
754                my $stackTrace = "";
755                my @trace = LongMess();
756                # Only proceed if we got something back.
757                if (scalar(@trace) > 0) {
758                    $trace[0] =~ s/Tracer::Warn.+?called/Event occurred/;
759                    $stackTrace = "Stack trace:<pre>" . join("\n", @trace, "</pre>");
760                }
761                # We got the stack trace. Now it's time to put it all together.
762                # We have a goofy thing here in that we need to HTML-escape some sections of the description
763                # twice. They will be escaped once here, and then once when written by XML::Simple. They are
764                # unescaped once when processed by the RSS reader, and stuff in the description is treated as
765                # HTML. So, anything escaped here is treated as a literal when viewed in the RSS reader, but
766                # our <br>s and <pre>s are used to format the description.
767                $recap = (defined $recap ? "<em>" . CGI::escapeHTML($recap) . "</em><br /><br />" : "");
768                my $description = "$recap$environment  $stackTrace";
769                # Okay, we have all the pieces. Create a hash of the new event.
770                my $newItem = { title => $title,
771                                description => $description,
772                                category => $LastCategory,
773                                pubDate => $date,
774                                guid => $guid,
775                               };
776                # We need XML capability for this.
777                require XML::Simple;
778                # The RSS document goes in here.
779                my $rss;
780                # Get the name of the RSS file. It's in the FIG temporary directory.
781                my $fileName = "$FIG_Config::temp/$FIG_Config::error_feed";
782                # Does it exist?
783                if (-s $fileName) {
784                    # Slurp it in.
785                    $rss = XML::Simple::XMLin($fileName, ForceArray => ['item']);
786                } else {
787                    my $size = -s $fileName;
788                    # Create an empty channel.
789                    $rss = {
790                        channel => {
791                            title => 'NMPDR Warning Feed',
792                            link => "$FIG_Config::temp_url/$FIG_Config::error_feed",
793                            description => "Important messages regarding the status of the NMPDR.",
794                            generator => "NMPDR Trace Facility",
795                            docs => "http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss",
796                            item => []
797                        },
798                    };
799                }
800                # Get the channel object.
801                my $channel = $rss->{channel};
802                # Update the last-build date.
803                $channel->{lastBuildDate} = $date;
804                # Get the item array.
805                my $items = $channel->{item};
806                # Insure it has only 100 entries.
807                while (scalar @{$items} > 100) {
808                    pop @{$items};
809                }
810                # Add our new item at the front.
811                unshift @{$items}, $newItem;
812                # Create the XML. Note we do not include the root or the declaration. XML Simple can't handle
813                # the requirements for those.
814                my $xml = XML::Simple::XMLout($rss, NoAttr => 1, RootName => undef, XmlDecl => '');
815                # Here we put in the root and declaration. The problem is that the root has to have the version attribute
816                # in it. So, we suppress the root and do it by hand, and that requires suppressing the declaration, too.
817                $xml = "<?xml version=\"1.0\" encoding=\"utf-8\"?>\n<rss version=\"2.0\">$xml\n</rss>";
818                # We don't use Open here because we can't afford an error.
819                if (open XMLOUT, ">$fileName") {
820                    print XMLOUT $xml;
821                    close XMLOUT;
822                }
823            }
824        };
825        if ($@) {
826            # If the feed failed, we need to know why. The error will be traced, but this method will not be involved
827            # (which is a good thing).
828            my $error = $@;
829            Trace("Feed Error: $error") if T(Feed => 0);
830        }
831    }
832    
833    =head3 Assert
834    
835        Assert($condition1, $condition2, ... $conditionN);
836    
837    Return TRUE if all the conditions are true. This method can be used in conjunction with
838    the OR operator and the L</Confess> method as a debugging assert.
839    So, for example
840    
841        Assert($recNum >= 0) || Confess("Invalid record number $recNum.");
842    
843    Will abort the program with a stack trace if the value of C<$recNum> is negative.
844    
845    =cut
846    sub Assert {
847        my $retVal = 1;
848        LOOP: for my $condition (@_) {
849            if (! $condition) {
850                $retVal = 0;
851                last LOOP;
852            }
853        }
854        return $retVal;
855    }
856    
857    =head3 Cluck
858    
859        Cluck($message);
860    
861    Trace the call stack. Note that for best results, you should qualify the call with a
862    trace condition. For example,
863    
864        Cluck("Starting record parse.") if T(3);
865    
866    will only trace the stack if the trace level for the package is 3 or more.
867    
868    =over 4
869    
870    =item message
871    
872    Message to include in the trace.
873    
874    =back
875    
876    =cut
877    
878    sub Cluck {
879        # Get the parameters.
880        my ($message) = @_;
881        # Trace what's happening.
882        Trace("Stack trace for event: $message");
883        # Get the stack trace.
884        my @trace = LongMess();
885        # Convert the trace to a series of messages.
886        for my $line (@trace) {
887            # Replace the tab at the beginning with spaces.
888            $line =~ s/^\t/    /;
889            # Trace the line.
890            Trace($line);
891        }
892        # Issue a warning. This displays the event message and inserts it into the RSS error feed.
893        Warn($message);
894    }
895    
896    =head3 LongMess
897    
898        my @lines = Tracer::LongMess();
899    
900    Return a stack trace with all tracing methods removed. The return will be in the form of a list
901    of message strings.
902    
903    =cut
904    
905    sub LongMess {
906        # Declare the return variable.
907        my @retVal = ();
908        my $confession = longmess("");
909        for my $line (split /\s*\n/, $confession) {
910            unless ($line =~ /Tracer\.pm/) {
911                # Here we have a line worth keeping. Push it onto the result list.
912                push @retVal, $line;
913            }
914        }
915        # Return the result.
916        return @retVal;
917    }
918    
919    =head3 ScriptSetup (deprecated)
920    
921        my ($cgi, $varHash) = ScriptSetup($noTrace);
922    
923    Perform standard tracing and debugging setup for scripts. The value returned is
924    the CGI object followed by a pre-built variable hash. At the end of the script,
925    the client should call L</ScriptFinish> to output the web page.
926    
927    This method calls L</ETracing> to configure tracing, which allows the tracing
928    to be configured via the emergency tracing form on the debugging control panel.
929    Tracing will then be turned on automatically for all programs that use the L</ETracing>
930    method, which includes every program that uses this method or L</StandardSetup>.
931    
932    =over 4
933    
934    =item noTrace (optional)
935    
936    If specified, tracing will be suppressed. This is useful if the script wants to set up
937    tracing manually.
938    
939    =item RETURN
940    
941    Returns a two-element list consisting of a CGI query object and a variable hash for
942    the output page.
943    
944    =back
945    
946    =cut
947    
948    sub ScriptSetup {
949        # Get the parameters.
950        my ($noTrace) = @_;
951        # Get the CGI query object.
952        my $cgi = CGI->new();
953        # Set up tracing if it's not suppressed.
954        ETracing($cgi) unless $noTrace;
955        # Create the variable hash.
956        my $varHash = { results => '' };
957        # Return the query object and variable hash.
958        return ($cgi, $varHash);
959    }
960    
961    =head3 ETracing
962    
963        ETracing($parameter);
964    
965    Set up emergency tracing. Emergency tracing is tracing that is turned
966    on automatically for any program that calls this method. The emergency
967    tracing parameters are stored in a a file identified by a tracing key.
968    If this method is called with a CGI object, then the tracing key is
969    taken from a cookie. If it is called with no parameters, then the tracing
970    key is taken from an environment variable. If it is called with a string,
971    the tracing key is that string.
972    
973    =over 4
974    
975    =item parameter
976    
977    A parameter from which the tracing key is computed. If it is a scalar,
978    that scalar is used as the tracing key. If it is a CGI object, the
979    tracing key is taken from the C<IP> cookie. If it is omitted, the
980    tracing key is taken from the C<TRACING> environment variable. If it
981    is a CGI object and emergency tracing is not on, the C<Trace> and
982    C<TF> parameters will be used to determine the type of tracing.
983    
984    =back
985    
986    =cut
987    
988    sub ETracing {
989        # Get the parameter.
990        my ($parameter) = @_;
991        # Check for CGI mode.
992        if (defined $parameter && ref $parameter eq 'CGI') {
993            $SavedCGI = $parameter;
994        } else {
995            $SavedCGI = undef;
996        }
997        # Default to no tracing except errors.
998        my ($tracing, $dest) = ("0", "WARN");
999        # Check for emergency tracing.
1000        my $tkey = EmergencyKey($parameter);
1001        my $emergencyFile = EmergencyFileName($tkey);
1002        if (-e $emergencyFile) {
1003            # We have the file. Read in the data.
1004            my @tracing = GetFile($emergencyFile);
1005            # Pull off the time limit.
1006            my $expire = shift @tracing;
1007            # Convert it to seconds.
1008            $expire *= 3600;
1009            # Check the file data.
1010            my $stat = stat($emergencyFile);
1011            my ($now) = gettimeofday;
1012            if ($now - $stat->mtime > $expire) {
1013                # Delete the expired file.
1014                unlink $emergencyFile;
1015            } else {
1016                # Emergency tracing is on. Pull off the destination and
1017                # the trace level;
1018                $dest = shift @tracing;
1019                my $level = shift @tracing;
1020                # Convert the destination to a real tracing destination.
1021                # temp directory.
1022                $dest = EmergencyTracingDest($tkey, $dest);
1023                # Insure Tracer is specified.
1024                my %moduleHash = map { $_ => 1 } @tracing;
1025                $moduleHash{Tracer} = 1;
1026                # Set the trace parameter.
1027                $tracing = join(" ", $level, sort keys %moduleHash);
1028            }
1029        } elsif (defined $SavedCGI) {
1030            # There's no emergency tracing, but we have a CGI object, so check
1031            # for tracing from the form parameters.
1032            if ($SavedCGI->param('Trace')) {
1033                # Here the user has requested tracing via a form.
1034                $dest = ($SavedCGI->param('TF') ? ">$FIG_Config::temp/Trace$$.log" : "QUEUE");
1035                $tracing = $SavedCGI->param('Trace') . " Tracer";
1036            }
1037        }
1038        # Setup the tracing we've determined from all the stuff above.
1039        TSetup($tracing, $dest);
1040        # Check to see if we're a web script.
1041        if (defined $SavedCGI) {
1042            # Yes we are. Trace the form and environment data.
1043            TraceParms($SavedCGI);
1044            # Check for RAW mode. In raw mode, we print a fake header so that we see everything
1045            # emitted by the script in its raw form.
1046            if (T(Raw => 3)) {
1047                print CGI::header(-type => 'text/plain', -tracing => 'Raw');
1048            }
1049        }
1050    }
1051    
1052    =head3 EmergencyFileName
1053    
1054        my $fileName = Tracer::EmergencyFileName($tkey);
1055    
1056    Return the emergency tracing file name. This is the file that specifies
1057    the tracing information.
1058    
1059    =over 4
1060    
1061    =item tkey
1062    
1063    Tracing key for the current program.
1064    
1065    =item RETURN
1066    
1067    Returns the name of the file to contain the emergency tracing information.
1068    
1069    =back
1070    
1071    =cut
1072    
1073    sub EmergencyFileName {
1074        # Get the parameters.
1075        my ($tkey) = @_;
1076        # Compute the emergency tracing file name.
1077        return "$FIG_Config::temp/Emergency$tkey.txt";
1078    }
1079    
1080    =head3 EmergencyFileTarget
1081    
1082        my $fileName = Tracer::EmergencyFileTarget($tkey);
1083    
1084    Return the emergency tracing target file name. This is the file that receives
1085    the tracing output for file-based tracing.
1086    
1087    =over 4
1088    
1089    =item tkey
1090    
1091    Tracing key for the current program.
1092    
1093    =item RETURN
1094    
1095    Returns the name of the file to contain the trace output.
1096    
1097    =back
1098    
1099    =cut
1100    
1101    sub EmergencyFileTarget {
1102        # Get the parameters.
1103        my ($tkey) = @_;
1104        # Compute the emergency tracing file name.
1105        return "$FIG_Config::temp/trace$tkey.log";
1106    }
1107    
1108    =head3 EmergencyTracingDest
1109    
1110        my $dest = Tracer::EmergencyTracingDest($tkey, $myDest);
1111    
1112    This method converts an emergency tracing destination to a real
1113    tracing destination. The main difference is that if the
1114    destination is C<FILE> or C<APPEND>, we convert it to file
1115    output. If the destination is C<DUAL>, we convert it to file
1116    and standard output.
1117    
1118    =over 4
1119    
1120    =item tkey
1121    
1122    Tracing key for this environment.
1123    
1124    =item myDest
1125    
1126    Destination from the emergency tracing file.
1127    
1128    =item RETURN
1129    
1130    Returns a destination that can be passed into L</TSetup>.
1131    
1132    =back
1133    
1134    =cut
1135    
1136    sub EmergencyTracingDest {
1137        # Get the parameters.
1138        my ($tkey, $myDest) = @_;
1139        # Declare the return variable.
1140        my $retVal = $myDest;
1141        # Process according to the destination value.
1142        if ($myDest eq 'FILE') {
1143            $retVal = ">" . EmergencyFileTarget($tkey);
1144        } elsif ($myDest eq 'APPEND') {
1145            $retVal = ">>" . EmergencyFileTarget($tkey);
1146        } elsif ($myDest eq 'DUAL') {
1147            $retVal = "+>" . EmergencyFileTarget($tkey);
1148        } elsif ($myDest eq 'WARN') {
1149            $retVal = "WARN";
1150        }
1151        # Return the result.
1152        return $retVal;
1153    }
1154    
1155    =head3 Emergency
1156    
1157        Emergency($key, $hours, $dest, $level, @modules);
1158    
1159    Turn on emergency tracing. This method is normally invoked over the web from
1160    a debugging console, but it can also be called by the C<trace.pl> script.
1161    The caller specifies the duration of the emergency in hours, the desired tracing
1162    destination, the trace level, and a list of the trace modules to activate.
1163    For the length of the duration, when a program in an environment with the
1164    specified tracing key active invokes a Sprout CGI script, tracing will be
1165    turned on automatically. See L</TSetup> for more about tracing setup and
1166    L</ETracing> for more about emergency tracing.
1167    
1168    =over 4
1169    
1170    =item tkey
1171    
1172    The tracing key. This is used to identify the control file and the trace file.
1173    
1174    =item hours
1175    
1176    Number of hours to keep emergency tracing alive.
1177    
1178    =item dest
1179    
1180    Tracing destination. If no path information is specified for a file
1181    destination, it is put in the FIG temporary directory.
1182    
1183    =item level
1184    
1185    Tracing level. A higher level means more trace messages.
1186    
1187    =item modules
1188    
1189    A list of the tracing modules to activate.
1190    
1191    =back
1192    
1193    =cut
1194    
1195    sub Emergency {
1196        # Get the parameters.
1197        my ($tkey, $hours, $dest, $level, @modules) = @_;
1198        # Create the emergency file.
1199        my $specFile = EmergencyFileName($tkey);
1200        my $outHandle = Open(undef, ">$specFile");
1201        print $outHandle join("\n", $hours, $dest, $level, @modules, "");
1202    }
1203    
1204    =head3 EmergencyKey
1205    
1206        my $tkey = EmergencyKey($parameter);
1207    
1208    Return the Key to be used for emergency tracing. This could be an IP address,
1209     a session ID, or a user name, depending on the environment.
1210    
1211    =over 4
1212    
1213    =item parameter
1214    
1215    Parameter defining the method for finding the tracing key. If it is a scalar,
1216    then it is presumed to be the tracing key itself. If it is a CGI object, then
1217    the tracing key is taken from the C<IP> cookie. Otherwise, the tracing key is
1218    taken from the C<TRACING> environment variable.
1219    
1220    =item RETURN
1221    
1222    Returns the key to be used for labels in emergency tracing.
1223    
1224    =back
1225    
1226    =cut
1227    
1228    sub EmergencyKey {
1229        # Get the parameters.
1230        my ($parameter) = @_;
1231        # Declare the return variable.
1232        my $retVal;
1233        # Determine the parameter type.
1234        if (! defined $parameter) {
1235            # Here we're supposed to check the environment. If that fails, we
1236            # get the effective login ID.
1237            $retVal = $ENV{TRACING} || scalar getpwuid($<);
1238        } else {
1239            my $ptype = ref $parameter;
1240            if ($ptype eq 'CGI') {
1241                # Here we were invoked from a web page. Look for a cookie.
1242                $retVal = $parameter->cookie('IP');
1243            } elsif (! $ptype) {
1244                # Here the key was passed in.
1245                $retVal = $parameter;
1246            }
1247        }
1248        # If no luck finding a key, use the PID.
1249        if (! defined $retVal) {
1250            $retVal = $$;
1251        }
1252        # Return the result.
1253        return $retVal;
1254    }
1255    
1256    
1257    =head3 TraceParms
1258    
1259        Tracer::TraceParms($cgi);
1260    
1261    Trace the CGI parameters at trace level CGI => 3 and the environment variables
1262    at level CGI => 4. A self-referencing URL is traced at level CGI => 2.
1263    
1264    =over 4
1265    
1266    =item cgi
1267    
1268    CGI query object containing the parameters to trace.
1269    
1270    =back
1271    
1272    =cut
1273    
1274    sub TraceParms {
1275        # Get the parameters.
1276        my ($cgi) = @_;
1277        if (T(CGI => 2)) {
1278            # Here we trace the GET-style URL for the script.
1279            Trace("[URL] " . $cgi->url(-relative => 1, -query => 1));
1280        }
1281        if (T(CGI => 3)) {
1282            # Here we want to trace the parameter data.
1283            my @names = $cgi->param;
1284            for my $parmName (sort @names) {
1285                # Note we skip the Trace parameters, which are for our use only.
1286                if ($parmName ne 'Trace' && $parmName ne 'TF') {
1287                    my @values = $cgi->param($parmName);
1288                    Trace("[CGI] $parmName = " . join(", ", @values));
1289                }
1290            }
1291            # Display the request method.
1292            my $method = $cgi->request_method();
1293            Trace("Method: $method");
1294        }
1295        if (T(CGI => 4)) {
1296            # Here we want the environment data too.
1297            for my $envName (sort keys %ENV) {
1298                Trace("[ENV] $envName = $ENV{$envName}");
1299            }
1300        }
1301    }
1302    
1303    =head3 TraceImages
1304    
1305        Tracer::TraceImages($htmlString);
1306    
1307    Trace information about all of an html document's images. The tracing
1308    will be for type "IMG" at level 3. The image's source string
1309    will be displayed. This is generally either the URL of the image or
1310    raw data for the image itself. If the source is too long, only the first 300
1311    characters will be shown at trace level 3. The entire source will be shown,
1312    however, at trace level 4. This method is not very smart, and might catch
1313    Javascript code, but it is still useful when debugging the arcane
1314    behavior of images in multiple browser environments.
1315    
1316    =over 4
1317    
1318    =item htmlString
1319    
1320    HTML text for an outgoing web page.
1321    
1322    =back
1323    
1324    =cut
1325    
1326    sub TraceImages {
1327        # Only proceed if we're at the proper trace level.
1328        if (T(IMG => 3)) {
1329            # For performance reasons we're manipulating $_[0] instead of retrieving the string
1330            # into a variable called "$htmlString". This is because we expect html strings to be
1331            # long, and don't want to copy them any more than we have to.
1332            Trace(length($_[0]) . " characters in web page.");
1333            # Loop through the HTML, culling image tags.
1334            while ($_[0] =~ /<img\s+[^>]+?src="([^"]+)"/sgi) {
1335                # Extract the source string and determine whether or not it's too long.
1336                my $srcString = $1;
1337                my $pos = pos($_[0]) - length($srcString);
1338                my $excess = length($srcString) - 300;
1339                # We'll put the display string in here.
1340                my $srcDisplay = $srcString;
1341                # If it's a data string, split it at the comma.
1342                $srcDisplay =~ s/^(data[^,]+,)/$1\n/;
1343                # If there's no excess or we're at trace level 4, we're done. At level 3 with
1344                # a long string, however, we only show the first 300 characters.
1345                if ($excess > 0 && ! T(IMG => 4)) {
1346                    $srcDisplay = substr($srcDisplay,0,300) . "\nplus $excess characters.";
1347                }
1348                # Output the trace message.
1349                Trace("Image tag at position $pos:\n$srcDisplay");
1350            }
1351        }
1352    }
1353    
1354    
1355    =head3 ScriptFinish (deprecated)
1356    
1357        ScriptFinish($webData, $varHash);
1358    
1359    Output a web page at the end of a script. Either the string to be output or the
1360    name of a template file can be specified. If the second parameter is omitted,
1361    it is assumed we have a string to be output; otherwise, it is assumed we have the
1362    name of a template file. The template should have the variable C<DebugData>
1363    specified in any form that invokes a standard script. If debugging mode is turned
1364    on, a form field will be put in that allows the user to enter tracing data.
1365    Trace messages will be placed immediately before the terminal C<BODY> tag in
1366    the output, formatted as a list.
1367    
1368    A typical standard script would loook like the following.
1369    
1370        BEGIN {
1371            # Print the HTML header.
1372            print "CONTENT-TYPE: text/html\n\n";
1373        }
1374        use Tracer;
1375        use CGI;
1376        use FIG;
1377        # ... more uses ...
1378    
1379        my ($cgi, $varHash) = ScriptSetup();
1380        eval {
1381            # ... get data from $cgi, put it in $varHash ...
1382        };
1383        if ($@) {
1384            Trace("Script Error: $@") if T(0);
1385        }
1386        ScriptFinish("Html/MyTemplate.html", $varHash);
1387    
1388    The idea here is that even if the script fails, you'll see trace messages and
1389    useful output.
1390    
1391    =over 4
1392    
1393    =item webData
1394    
1395    A string containing either the full web page to be written to the output or the
1396    name of a template file from which the page is to be constructed. If the name
1397    of a template file is specified, then the second parameter must be present;
1398    otherwise, it must be absent.
1399    
1400    =item varHash (optional)
1401    
1402    If specified, then a reference to a hash mapping variable names for a template
1403    to their values. The template file will be read into memory, and variable markers
1404    will be replaced by data in this hash reference.
1405    
1406    =back
1407    
1408    =cut
1409    
1410    sub ScriptFinish {
1411        # Get the parameters.
1412        my ($webData, $varHash) = @_;
1413        # Check for a template file situation.
1414        my $outputString;
1415        if (defined $varHash) {
1416            # Here we have a template file. We need to determine the template type.
1417            my $template;
1418            if ($FIG_Config::template_url && $webData =~ /\.php$/) {
1419                $template = "$FIG_Config::template_url/$webData";
1420            } else {
1421                $template = "<<$webData";
1422            }
1423            $outputString = PageBuilder::Build($template, $varHash, "Html");
1424        } else {
1425            # Here the user gave us a raw string.
1426            $outputString = $webData;
1427        }
1428        # Check for trace messages.
1429        if ($Destination ne "NONE" && $TraceLevel > 0) {
1430            # We have trace messages, so we want to put them at the end of the body. This
1431            # is either at the end of the whole string or at the beginning of the BODY
1432            # end-tag.
1433            my $pos = length $outputString;
1434            if ($outputString =~ m#</body>#gi) {
1435                $pos = (pos $outputString) - 7;
1436            }
1437            # If the trace messages were queued, we unroll them. Otherwise, we display the
1438            # destination.
1439            my $traceHtml;
1440            if ($Destination eq "QUEUE") {
1441                $traceHtml = QTrace('Html');
1442            } elsif ($Destination =~ /^>>(.+)$/) {
1443                # Here the tracing output it to a file. We code it as a hyperlink so the user
1444                # can copy the file name into the clipboard easily.
1445                my $actualDest = $1;
1446                $traceHtml = "<p>Tracing output to $actualDest.</p>\n";
1447            } else {
1448                # Here we have one of the special destinations.
1449                $traceHtml = "<P>Tracing output type is $Destination.</p>\n";
1450            }
1451            substr $outputString, $pos, 0, $traceHtml;
1452        }
1453        # Write the output string.
1454        print $outputString;
1455    }
1456    
1457    =head2 Command-Line Utility Methods
1458    
1459    =head3 SendSMS
1460    
1461        my $msgID = Tracer::SendSMS($phoneNumber, $msg);
1462    
1463    Send a text message to a phone number using Clickatell. The FIG_Config file must contain the
1464    user name, password, and API ID for the relevant account in the hash reference variable
1465    I<$FIG_Config::phone>, using the keys C<user>, C<password>, and C<api_id>. For
1466    example, if the user name is C<BruceTheHumanPet>, the password is C<silly>, and the API ID
1467    is C<2561022>, then the FIG_Config file must contain
1468    
1469        $phone =  { user => 'BruceTheHumanPet',
1470                    password => 'silly',
1471                    api_id => '2561022' };
1472    
1473    The original purpose of this method was to insure Bruce would be notified immediately when the
1474    Sprout Load terminates. Care should be taken if you do not wish Bruce to be notified immediately
1475    when you call this method.
1476    
1477    The message ID will be returned if successful, and C<undef> if an error occurs.
1478    
1479    =over 4
1480    
1481    =item phoneNumber
1482    
1483    Phone number to receive the message, in international format. A United States phone number
1484    would be prefixed by "1". A British phone number would be prefixed by "44".
1485    
1486    =item msg
1487    
1488    Message to send to the specified phone.
1489    
1490    =item RETURN
1491    
1492    Returns the message ID if successful, and C<undef> if the message could not be sent.
1493    
1494    =back
1495    
1496    =cut
1497    
1498    sub SendSMS {
1499        # Get the parameters.
1500        my ($phoneNumber, $msg) = @_;
1501        # Declare the return variable. If we do not change it, C<undef> will be returned.
1502        my $retVal;
1503        # Only proceed if we have phone support.
1504        if (! defined $FIG_Config::phone) {
1505            Trace("Phone support not present in FIG_Config.") if T(1);
1506        } else {
1507            # Get the phone data.
1508            my $parms = $FIG_Config::phone;
1509            # Get the Clickatell URL.
1510            my $url = "http://api.clickatell.com/http/";
1511            # Create the user agent.
1512            my $ua = LWP::UserAgent->new;
1513            # Request a Clickatell session.
1514            my $resp = $ua->post("$url/sendmsg", { user => $parms->{user},
1515                                         password => $parms->{password},
1516                                         api_id => $parms->{api_id},
1517                                         to => $phoneNumber,
1518                                         text => $msg});
1519            # Check for an error.
1520            if (! $resp->is_success) {
1521                Trace("Alert failed.") if T(1);
1522            } else {
1523                # Get the message ID.
1524                my $rstring = $resp->content;
1525                if ($rstring =~ /^ID:\s+(.*)$/) {
1526                    $retVal = $1;
1527                } else {
1528                    Trace("Phone attempt failed with $rstring") if T(1);
1529                }
1530            }
1531        }
1532        # Return the result.
1533        return $retVal;
1534    }
1535    
1536    =head3 StandardSetup
1537    
1538        my ($options, @parameters) = StandardSetup(\@categories, \%options, $parmHelp, @ARGV);
1539    
1540    This method performs standard command-line parsing and tracing setup. The return
1541    values are a hash of the command-line options and a list of the positional
1542    parameters. Tracing is automatically set up and the command-line options are
1543    validated.
1544    
1545    This is a complex method that does a lot of grunt work. The parameters can
1546    be more easily understood, however, once they are examined individually.
1547    
1548    The I<categories> parameter is the most obtuse. It is a reference to a list of
1549    special-purpose tracing categories. Most tracing categories are PERL package
1550    names. So, for example, if you wanted to turn on tracing inside the B<Sprout>,
1551    B<ERDB>, and B<SproutLoad> packages, you would specify the categories
1552    
1553        ["Sprout", "SproutLoad", "ERDB"]
1554    
1555    This would cause trace messages in the specified three packages to appear in
1556    the output. There are two special tracing categories that are automatically
1557    handled by this method. In other words, if you used L</TSetup> you would need
1558    to include these categories manually, but if you use this method they are turned
1559    on automatically.
1560    
1561    =over 4
1562    
1563    =item SQL
1564    
1565    Traces SQL commands and activity.
1566    
1567    =item Tracer
1568    
1569    Traces error messages and call stacks.
1570    
1571    =back
1572    
1573    C<SQL> is only turned on if the C<-sql> option is specified in the command line.
1574    The trace level is specified using the C<-trace> command-line option. For example,
1575    the following command line for C<TransactFeatures> turns on SQL tracing and runs
1576    all tracing at level 3.
1577    
1578        TransactFeatures -trace=3 -sql register ../xacts IDs.tbl
1579    
1580    Standard tracing is output to the standard output and echoed to the file
1581    C<trace>I<$$>C<.log> in the FIG temporary directory, where I<$$> is the
1582    process ID. You can also specify the C<user> parameter to put a user ID
1583    instead of a process ID in the trace file name. So, for example
1584    
1585    The default trace level is 2. To get all messages, specify a trace level of 4.
1586    For a genome-by-genome update, use 3.
1587    
1588        TransactFeatures -trace=3 -sql -user=Bruce register ../xacts IDs.tbl
1589    
1590    would send the trace output to C<traceBruce.log> in the temporary directory.
1591    
1592    The I<options> parameter is a reference to a hash containing the command-line
1593    options, their default values, and an explanation of what they mean. Command-line
1594    options may be in the form of switches or keywords. In the case of a switch, the
1595    option value is 1 if it is specified and 0 if it is not specified. In the case
1596    of a keyword, the value is separated from the option name by an equal sign. You
1597    can see this last in the command-line example above.
1598    
1599    You can specify a different default trace level by setting C<$options->{trace}>
1600    prior to calling this method.
1601    
1602    An example at this point would help. Consider, for example, the command-line utility
1603    C<TransactFeatures>. It accepts a list of positional parameters plus the options
1604    C<safe>, C<noAlias>, C<start>, and C<tblFiles>. To start up this command, we execute
1605    the following code.
1606    
1607        my ($options, @parameters) = Tracer::StandardSetup(["DocUtils"],
1608                            { safe => [0, "use database transactions"],
1609                              noAlias => [0, "do not expect aliases in CHANGE transactions"],
1610                              start => [' ', "start with this genome"],
1611                              tblFiles => [0, "output TBL files containing the corrected IDs"] },
1612                            "<command> <transactionDirectory> <IDfile>",
1613                          @ARGV);
1614    
1615    
1616    The call to C<ParseCommand> specifies the default values for the options and
1617    stores the actual options in a hash that is returned as C<$options>. The
1618    positional parameters are returned in C<@parameters>.
1619    
1620    The following is a sample command line for C<TransactFeatures>.
1621    
1622        TransactFeatures -trace=2 -noAlias register ../xacts IDs.tbl
1623    
1624    Single and double hyphens are equivalent. So, you could also code the
1625    above command as
1626    
1627        TransactFeatures --trace=2 --noAlias register ../xacts IDs.tbl
1628    
1629    In this case, C<register>, C<../xacts>, and C<IDs.tbl> are the positional
1630    parameters, and would find themselves in I<@parameters> after executing the
1631    above code fragment. The tracing would be set to level 2, and the categories
1632    would be C<Tracer>, and <DocUtils>. C<Tracer> is standard,
1633    and C<DocUtils> was included because it came in within the first parameter
1634    to this method. The I<$options> hash would be
1635    
1636        { trace => 2, sql => 0, safe => 0,
1637          noAlias => 1, start => ' ', tblFiles => 0 }
1638    
1639    Use of C<StandardSetup> in this way provides a simple way of performing
1640    standard tracing setup and command-line parsing. Note that the caller is
1641    not even aware of the command-line switches C<-trace> and C<-sql>, which
1642    are used by this method to control the tracing. If additional tracing features
1643    need to be added in the future, they can be processed by this method without
1644    upsetting the command-line utilities.
1645    
1646    If the C<background> option is specified on the command line, then the
1647    standard and error outputs will be directed to files in the temporary
1648    directory, using the same suffix as the trace file. So, if the command
1649    line specified
1650    
1651        -user=Bruce -background
1652    
1653    then the trace output would go to C<traceBruce.log>, the standard output to
1654    C<outBruce.log>, and the error output to C<errBruce.log>. This is designed to
1655    simplify starting a command in the background.
1656    
1657    The user name is also used as the tracing key for L</Emergency Tracing>.
1658    Specifying a value of C<E> for the trace level causes emergency tracing to
1659    be used instead of custom tracing. If the user name is not specified,
1660    the tracing key is taken from the C<Tracing> environment variable. If there
1661    is no value for that variable, the tracing key will be computed from the active
1662    login ID.
1663    
1664    Since the default situation in StandardSetup is to trace to the standard
1665    output, errors that occur in command-line scripts will not generate
1666    RSS events. To force the events, use the C<warn> option.
1667    
1668        TransactFeatures -background -warn register ../xacts IDs.tbl
1669    
1670    Finally, if the special option C<-help> is specified, the option
1671    names will be traced at level 0 and the program will exit without processing.
1672    This provides a limited help capability. For example, if the user enters
1673    
1674        TransactFeatures -help
1675    
1676    he would see the following output.
1677    
1678        TransactFeatures [options] <command> <transactionDirectory> <IDfile>
1679            -trace    tracing level (default E)
1680            -sql      trace SQL commands
1681            -safe     use database transactions
1682            -noAlias  do not expect aliases in CHANGE transactions
1683            -start    start with this genome
1684            -tblFiles output TBL files containing the corrected IDs
1685    
1686    The caller has the option of modifying the tracing scheme by placing a value
1687    for C<trace> in the incoming options hash. The default value can be overridden,
1688    or the tracing to the standard output can be turned off by suffixing a minus
1689    sign to the trace level. So, for example,
1690    
1691        { trace => [0, "tracing level (default 0)"],
1692           ...
1693    
1694    would set the default trace level to 0 instead of E, while
1695    
1696        { trace => ["2-", "tracing level (default 2)"],
1697           ...
1698    
1699    would set the default to 2, but trace only to the log file, not to the
1700    standard output.
1701    
1702    The parameters to this method are as follows.
1703    
1704    =over 4
1705    
1706    =item categories
1707    
1708    Reference to a list of tracing category names. These should be names of
1709    packages whose internal workings will need to be debugged to get the
1710    command working.
1711    
1712    =item options
1713    
1714    Reference to a hash containing the legal options for the current command mapped
1715    to their default values and descriptions. The user can override the defaults
1716    by specifying the options as command-line switches prefixed by a hyphen.
1717    Tracing-related options may be added to this hash. If the C<-h> option is
1718    specified on the command line, the option descriptions will be used to
1719    explain the options. To turn off tracing to the standard output, add a
1720    minus sign to the value for C<trace> (see above).
1721    
1722    =item parmHelp
1723    
1724    A string that vaguely describes the positional parameters. This is used
1725    if the user specifies the C<-h> option.
1726    
1727    =item argv
1728    
1729    List of command line parameters, including the option switches, which must
1730    precede the positional parameters and be prefixed by a hyphen.
1731    
1732    =item RETURN
1733    
1734    Returns a list. The first element of the list is the reference to a hash that
1735    maps the command-line option switches to their values. These will either be the
1736    default values or overrides specified on the command line. The remaining
1737    elements of the list are the position parameters, in order.
1738    
1739    =back
1740    
1741    =cut
1742    
1743    sub StandardSetup {
1744        # Get the parameters.
1745        my ($categories, $options, $parmHelp, @argv) = @_;
1746        # Get the default tracing key.
1747        my $tkey = EmergencyKey();
1748        # Add the tracing options.
1749        if (! exists $options->{trace}) {
1750            $options->{trace} = ['2', "tracing level (E for emergency tracing)"];
1751        }
1752        $options->{sql} = [0, "turn on SQL tracing"];
1753        $options->{help} = [0, "display command-line options"];
1754        $options->{user} = [$tkey, "tracing key"];
1755        $options->{background} = [0, "spool standard and error output"];
1756        $options->{warn} = [0, "send errors to RSS feed"];
1757        # Create a parsing hash from the options hash. The parsing hash
1758        # contains the default values rather than the default value
1759        # and the description. While we're at it, we'll memorize the
1760        # length of the longest option name.
1761      my $longestName = 0;      my $longestName = 0;
1762      my %parseOptions = ();      my %parseOptions = ();
1763      for my $key (keys %{$options}) {      for my $key (keys %{$options}) {
# Line 437  Line 1776 
1776          my $errFileName = "$FIG_Config::temp/err$suffix.log";          my $errFileName = "$FIG_Config::temp/err$suffix.log";
1777          open STDOUT, ">$outFileName";          open STDOUT, ">$outFileName";
1778          open STDERR, ">$errFileName";          open STDERR, ">$errFileName";
1779            # Check for phone support. If we have phone support and a phone number,
1780            # we want to turn it on.
1781            if ($ENV{PHONE} && defined($FIG_Config::phone)) {
1782                $retOptions->{phone} = $ENV{PHONE};
1783      }      }
1784      # Now we want to set up tracing. First, we need to know if SQL is to      }
1785      # be traced.      # Now we want to set up tracing. First, we need to know if the user
1786        # wants emergency tracing.
1787        if ($retOptions->{trace} eq 'E') {
1788            ETracing($retOptions->{user});
1789        } else {
1790            # Here the tracing is controlled from the command line.
1791      my @cats = @{$categories};      my @cats = @{$categories};
1792      if ($retOptions->{sql}) {      if ($retOptions->{sql}) {
1793          push @cats, "SQL";          push @cats, "SQL";
1794      }      }
1795            if ($retOptions->{warn}) {
1796                push @cats, "Feed";
1797            }
1798      # Add the default categories.      # Add the default categories.
1799      push @cats, "Tracer", "FIG";          push @cats, "Tracer";
1800      # Next, we create the category string by joining the categories.      # Next, we create the category string by joining the categories.
1801      my $cats = join(" ", @cats);      my $cats = join(" ", @cats);
1802      # Check to determine whether or not the caller wants to turn off tracing      # Check to determine whether or not the caller wants to turn off tracing
# Line 470  Line 1821 
1821          # Close the test file.          # Close the test file.
1822          close TESTTRACE;          close TESTTRACE;
1823      } else {      } else {
1824          # Here we can't trace to a file. We trace to the standard output if it's              # Here we can't trace to a file. Complain about this.
1825                warn "Could not open trace file $traceFileName: $!\n";
1826                # We trace to the standard output if it's
1827          # okay, and the error log otherwise.          # okay, and the error log otherwise.
1828          if ($textOKFlag) {          if ($textOKFlag) {
1829              $traceMode = "TEXT";              $traceMode = "TEXT";
# Line 480  Line 1833 
1833      }      }
1834      # Now set up the tracing.      # Now set up the tracing.
1835      TSetup("$traceLevel $cats", $traceMode);      TSetup("$traceLevel $cats", $traceMode);
1836      # Check for the "h" option. If it is specified, dump the command-line      }
1837        # Check for the "help" option. If it is specified, dump the command-line
1838      # options and exit the program.      # options and exit the program.
1839      if ($retOptions->{h}) {      if ($retOptions->{help}) {
1840          $0 =~ m#[/\\](\w+)(\.pl)?$#i;          $0 =~ m#[/\\](\w+)(\.pl)?$#i;
1841          Trace("$1 [options] $parmHelp") if T(0);          print "$1 [options] $parmHelp\n";
1842          for my $key (sort keys %{$options}) {          for my $key (sort keys %{$options}) {
1843              my $name = Pad($key, $longestName, 0, ' ');              my $name = Pad($key, $longestName, 0, ' ');
1844              my $desc = $options->{$key}->[1];              my $desc = $options->{$key}->[1];
1845              if ($options->{$key}->[0]) {              if ($options->{$key}->[0]) {
1846                  $desc .= " (default " . $options->{$key}->[0] . ")";                  $desc .= " (default " . $options->{$key}->[0] . ")";
1847              }              }
1848              Trace("  $name $desc") if T(0);              print "  $name $desc\n";
1849          }          }
1850          exit(0);          exit(0);
1851      }      }
1852        # Trace the options, if applicable.
1853        if (T(3)) {
1854            my @parms = grep { $retOptions->{$_} } keys %{$retOptions};
1855            Trace("Selected options: " . join(", ", sort @parms) . ".");
1856        }
1857      # Return the parsed parameters.      # Return the parsed parameters.
1858      return ($retOptions, @retParameters);      return ($retOptions, @retParameters);
1859  }  }
1860    
1861  =head3 Setups  =head3 ReadOptions
1862    
1863  C<< my $count = Tracer::Setups(); >>      my %options = Tracer::ReadOptions($fileName);
1864    
1865  Return the number of times L</TSetup> has been called.  Read a set of options from a file. Each option is encoded in a line of text that has the
1866    format
1867    
1868  This method allows for the creation of conditional tracing setups where, for example, we  I<optionName>C<=>I<optionValue>C<; >I<comment>
1869  may want to set up tracing if nobody else has done it before us.  
1870    The option name must consist entirely of letters, digits, and the punctuation characters
1871    C<.> and C<_>, and is case sensitive. Blank lines and lines in which the first nonblank
1872    character is a semi-colon will be ignored. The return hash will map each option name to
1873    the corresponding option value.
1874    
1875    =over 4
1876    
1877    =item fileName
1878    
1879    Name of the file containing the option data.
1880    
1881    =item RETURN
1882    
1883    Returns a hash mapping the option names specified in the file to their corresponding option
1884    value.
1885    
1886    =back
1887    
1888  =cut  =cut
1889    
1890  sub Setups {  sub ReadOptions {
1891      return $SetupCount;      # Get the parameters.
1892        my ($fileName) = @_;
1893        # Open the file.
1894        (open CONFIGFILE, "<$fileName") || Confess("Could not open option file $fileName.");
1895        # Count the number of records read.
1896        my ($records, $comments) = 0;
1897        # Create the return hash.
1898        my %retVal = ();
1899        # Loop through the file, accumulating key-value pairs.
1900        while (my $line = <CONFIGFILE>) {
1901            # Denote we've read a line.
1902            $records++;
1903            # Determine the line type.
1904            if ($line =~ /^\s*[\n\r]/) {
1905                # A blank line is a comment.
1906                $comments++;
1907            } elsif ($line =~ /^\s*([A-Za-z0-9_\.]+)=([^;]*);/) {
1908                # Here we have an option assignment.
1909                retVal{$1} = $2;
1910            } elsif ($line =~ /^\s*;/) {
1911                # Here we have a text comment.
1912                $comments++;
1913            } else {
1914                # Here we have an invalid line.
1915                Trace("Invalid option statement in record $records.") if T(0);
1916            }
1917        }
1918        # Return the hash created.
1919        return %retVal;
1920  }  }
1921    
1922  =head3 Open  =head3 GetOptions
1923    
1924  C<< my $handle = Open($fileHandle, $fileSpec, $message); >>      Tracer::GetOptions(\%defaults, \%options);
1925    
1926  Open a file.  Merge a specified set of options into a table of defaults. This method takes two hash references
1927    as input and uses the data from the second to update the first. If the second does not exist,
1928    there will be no effect. An error will be thrown if one of the entries in the second hash does not
1929    exist in the first.
1930    
1931  The I<$fileSpec> is essentially the second argument of the PERL C<open>  Consider the following example.
 function. The mode is specified using Unix-like shell information. So, for  
 example,  
1932    
1933      Open(\*LOGFILE, '>>/usr/spool/news/twitlog', "Could not open twit log.");      my $optionTable = GetOptions({ dbType => 'mySQL', trace => 0 }, $options);
1934    
1935  would open for output appended to the specified file, and  In this example, the variable B<$options> is expected to contain at most two options-- B<dbType> and
1936    B<trace>. The default database type is C<mySQL> and the default trace level is C<0>. If the value of
1937    B<$options> is C<< {dbType => 'Oracle'} >>, then the database type will be changed to C<Oracle> and
1938    the trace level will remain at 0. If B<$options> is undefined, then the database type and trace level
1939    will remain C<mySQL> and C<0>. If, on the other hand, B<$options> is defined as
1940    
1941      Open(\*DATASTREAM, "| sort -u >$outputFile", "Could not open $outputFile.");      {databaseType => 'Oracle'}
1942    
1943  would open a pipe that sorts the records written and removes duplicates. Note  an error will occur because the B<databaseType> option does not exist.
 the use of file handle syntax in the Open call. To use anonymous file handles,  
 code as follows.  
1944    
1945      my $logFile = Open(undef, '>>/usr/spool/news/twitlog', "Could not open twit log.");  =over 4
1946    
1947  The I<$message> parameter is used if the open fails. If it is set to C<0>, then  =item defaults
 the open returns TRUE if successful and FALSE if an error occurred. Otherwise, a  
 failed open will throw an exception and the third parameter will be used to construct  
 an error message. If the parameter is omitted, a standard message is constructed  
 using the file spec.  
1948    
1949      Could not open "/usr/spool/news/twitlog"  Table of default option values.
1950    
1951  Note that the mode characters are automatically cleaned from the file name.  =item options
1952  The actual error message from the file system will be captured and appended to the  
1953  message in any case.  Table of overrides, if any.
1954    
1955    =item RETURN
1956    
1957    Returns a reference to the default table passed in as the first parameter.
1958    
1959    =back
1960    
1961    =cut
1962    
1963    sub GetOptions {
1964        # Get the parameters.
1965        my ($defaults, $options) = @_;
1966        # Check for overrides.
1967        if ($options) {
1968            # Loop through the overrides.
1969            while (my ($option, $setting) = each %{$options}) {
1970                # Insure this override exists.
1971                if (!exists $defaults->{$option}) {
1972                    croak "Unrecognized option $option encountered.";
1973                } else {
1974                    # Apply the override.
1975                    $defaults->{$option} = $setting;
1976                }
1977            }
1978        }
1979        # Return the merged table.
1980        return $defaults;
1981    }
1982    
1983    =head3 MergeOptions
1984    
1985        Tracer::MergeOptions(\%table, \%defaults);
1986    
1987    Merge default values into a hash table. This method looks at the key-value pairs in the
1988    second (default) hash, and if a matching key is not found in the first hash, the default
1989    pair is copied in. The process is similar to L</GetOptions>, but there is no error-
1990    checking and no return value.
1991    
1992    =over 4
1993    
1994    =item table
1995    
1996    Hash table to be updated with the default values.
1997    
1998    =item defaults
1999    
2000    Default values to be merged into the first hash table if they are not already present.
2001    
2002    =back
2003    
2004    =cut
2005    
2006    sub MergeOptions {
2007        # Get the parameters.
2008        my ($table, $defaults) = @_;
2009        # Loop through the defaults.
2010        while (my ($key, $value) = each %{$defaults}) {
2011            if (!exists $table->{$key}) {
2012                $table->{$key} = $value;
2013            }
2014        }
2015    }
2016    
2017    =head3 ParseCommand
2018    
2019        my ($options, @arguments) = Tracer::ParseCommand(\%optionTable, @inputList);
2020    
2021    Parse a command line consisting of a list of parameters. The initial parameters may be option
2022    specifiers of the form C<->I<option> or C<->I<option>C<=>I<value>. The options are stripped
2023    off and merged into a table of default options. The remainder of the command line is
2024    returned as a list of positional arguments. For example, consider the following invocation.
2025    
2026        my ($options, @arguments) = ParseCommand({ errors => 0, logFile => 'trace.log'}, @words);
2027    
2028    In this case, the list @words will be treated as a command line and there are two options available,
2029    B<errors> and B<logFile>. If @words has the following format
2030    
2031        -logFile=error.log apple orange rutabaga
2032    
2033    then at the end of the invocation, C<$options> will be
2034    
2035        { errors => 0, logFile => 'error.log' }
2036    
2037    and C<@arguments> will contain
2038    
2039        apple orange rutabaga
2040    
2041    The parser allows for some escape sequences. See L</UnEscape> for a description. There is no
2042    support for quote characters. Options can be specified with single or double hyphens.
2043    
2044    =over 4
2045    
2046    =item optionTable
2047    
2048    Table of default options.
2049    
2050    =item inputList
2051    
2052    List of words on the command line.
2053    
2054    =item RETURN
2055    
2056    Returns a reference to the option table and a list of the positional arguments.
2057    
2058    =back
2059    
2060    =cut
2061    
2062    sub ParseCommand {
2063        # Get the parameters.
2064        my ($optionTable, @inputList) = @_;
2065        # Process any options in the input list.
2066        my %overrides = ();
2067        while ((@inputList > 0) && ($inputList[0] =~ /^--?/)) {
2068            # Get the current option.
2069            my $arg = shift @inputList;
2070            # Pull out the option name.
2071            $arg =~ /^--?([^=]*)/g;
2072            my $name = $1;
2073            # Check for an option value.
2074            if ($arg =~ /\G=(.*)$/g) {
2075                # Here we have a value for the option.
2076                $overrides{$name} = UnEscape($1);
2077            } else {
2078                # Here there is no value, so we use 1.
2079                $overrides{$name} = 1;
2080            }
2081        }
2082        # Merge the options into the defaults.
2083        GetOptions($optionTable, \%overrides);
2084        # Translate the remaining parameters.
2085        my @retVal = ();
2086        for my $inputParm (@inputList) {
2087            push @retVal, UnEscape($inputParm);
2088        }
2089        # Return the results.
2090        return ($optionTable, @retVal);
2091    }
2092    
     Could not open "/usr/spool/news/twitlog": file not found.  
2093    
2094  In some versions of PERL the only error message we get is a number, which  =head2 File Utility Methods
 corresponds to the C++ C<errno> value.  
2095    
2096      Could not open "/usr/spool/news/twitlog": 6.  =head3 GetFile
2097    
2098  =over 4      my @fileContents = Tracer::GetFile($fileName);
2099    
2100  =item fileHandle      or
2101    
2102  File handle. If this parameter is C<undef>, a file handle will be generated      my $fileContents = Tracer::GetFile($fileName);
 and returned as the value of this method.  
2103    
2104  =item fileSpec  Return the entire contents of a file. In list context, line-ends are removed and
2105    each line is a list element. In scalar context, line-ends are replaced by C<\n>.
2106    
2107  File name and mode, as per the PERL C<open> function.  =over 4
2108    
2109  =item message (optional)  =item fileName
2110    
2111  Error message to use if the open fails. If omitted, a standard error message  Name of the file to read.
 will be generated. In either case, the error information from the file system  
 is appended to the message. To specify a conditional open that does not throw  
 an error if it fails, use C<0>.  
2112    
2113  =item RETURN  =item RETURN
2114    
2115  Returns the name of the file handle assigned to the file, or C<undef> if the  In a list context, returns the entire file as a list with the line terminators removed.
2116  open failed.  In a scalar context, returns the entire file as a string. If an error occurs opening
2117    the file, an empty list will be returned.
2118    
2119  =back  =back
2120    
2121  =cut  =cut
2122    
2123  sub Open {  sub GetFile {
2124      # Get the parameters.      # Get the parameters.
2125      my ($fileHandle, $fileSpec, $message) = @_;      my ($fileName) = @_;
2126      # Attempt to open the file.      # Declare the return variable.
2127      my $rv = open $fileHandle, $fileSpec;      my @retVal = ();
2128      # If the open failed, generate an error message.      # Open the file for input.
2129      if (! $rv) {      my $handle = Open(undef, "<$fileName");
2130          # Save the system error message.      # Read the whole file into the return variable, stripping off any terminator
2131          my $sysMessage = $!;      # characters.
2132          # See if we need a default message.      my $lineCount = 0;
2133          if (!$message) {      while (my $line = <$handle>) {
2134              # Clean any obvious mode characters and leading spaces from the          $lineCount++;
2135              # filename.          $line = Strip($line);
2136              my ($fileName) = FindNamePart($fileSpec);          push @retVal, $line;
             $message = "Could not open \"$fileName\"";  
2137          }          }
2138          # Terminate with an error using the supplied message and the      # Close it.
2139          # error message from the file system.      close $handle;
2140          Confess("$message: $!");      my $actualLines = @retVal;
2141        Trace("$actualLines lines read from file $fileName.") if T(File => 2);
2142        # Return the file's contents in the desired format.
2143        if (wantarray) {
2144            return @retVal;
2145        } else {
2146            return join "\n", @retVal;
2147      }      }
     # Return the file handle.  
     return $fileHandle;  
2148  }  }
2149    
2150  =head3 FindNamePart  =head3 PutFile
   
 C<< my ($fileName, $start, $len) = Tracer::FindNamePart($fileSpec); >>  
   
 Extract the portion of a file specification that contains the file name.  
   
 A file specification is the string passed to an C<open> call. It specifies the file  
 mode and name. In a truly complex situation, it can specify a pipe sequence. This  
 method assumes that the file name is whatever follows the first angle bracket  
 sequence.  So, for example, in the following strings the file name is  
 C</usr/fig/myfile.txt>.  
2151    
2152      >>/usr/fig/myfile.txt      Tracer::PutFile($fileName, \@lines);
     </usr/fig/myfile.txt  
     | sort -u > /usr/fig/myfile.txt  
2153    
2154  If the method cannot find a file name using its normal methods, it will return the  Write out a file from a list of lines of text.
 whole incoming string.  
2155    
2156  =over 4  =over 4
2157    
2158  =item fileSpec  =item fileName
2159    
2160  File specification string from which the file name is to be extracted.  Name of the output file.
2161    
2162  =item RETURN  =item lines
2163    
2164  Returns a three-element list. The first element contains the file name portion of  Reference to a list of text lines. The lines will be written to the file in order, with trailing
2165  the specified string, or the whole string if a file name cannot be found via normal  new-line characters. Alternatively, may be a string, in which case the string will be written without
2166  methods. The second element contains the start position of the file name portion and  modification.
 the third element contains the length.  
2167    
2168  =back  =back
2169    
2170  =cut  =cut
2171  #: Return Type $;  
2172  sub FindNamePart {  sub PutFile {
2173      # Get the parameters.      # Get the parameters.
2174      my ($fileSpec) = @_;      my ($fileName, $lines) = @_;
2175      # Default to the whole input string.      # Open the output file.
2176      my ($retVal, $pos, $len) = ($fileSpec, 0, length $fileSpec);      my $handle = Open(undef, ">$fileName");
2177      # Parse out the file name if we can.      # Count the lines written.
2178      if ($fileSpec =~ m/(<|>>?)(.+?)(\s*)$/) {      if (ref $lines ne 'ARRAY') {
2179          $retVal = $2;          # Here we have a scalar, so we write it raw.
2180          $len = length $retVal;          print $handle $lines;
2181          $pos = (length $fileSpec) - (length $3) - $len;          Trace("Scalar put to file $fileName.") if T(File => 3);
2182        } else {
2183            # Write the lines one at a time.
2184            my $count = 0;
2185            for my $line (@{$lines}) {
2186                print $handle "$line\n";
2187                $count++;
2188      }      }
2189      # Return the result.          Trace("$count lines put to file $fileName.") if T(File => 3);
2190      return ($retVal, $pos, $len);      }
2191        # Close the output file.
2192        close $handle;
2193  }  }
2194    
2195  =head3 OpenDir  =head3 ParseRecord
   
 C<< my @files = OpenDir($dirName, $filtered, $flag); >>  
   
 Open a directory and return all the file names. This function essentially performs  
 the functions of an C<opendir> and C<readdir>. If the I<$filtered> parameter is  
 set to TRUE, all filenames beginning with a period (C<.>), dollar sign (C<$>),  
 or pound sign (C<#>) and all filenames ending with a tilde C<~>) will be  
 filtered out of the return list. If the directory does not open and I<$flag> is not  
 set, an exception is thrown. So, for example,  
   
     my @files = OpenDir("/Volumes/fig/contigs", 1);  
   
 is effectively the same as  
   
     opendir(TMP, "/Volumes/fig/contigs") || Confess("Could not open /Volumes/fig/contigs.");  
     my @files = grep { $_ !~ /^[\.\$\#]/ && $_ !~ /~$/ } readdir(TMP);  
   
 Similarly, the following code  
2196    
2197      my @files = grep { $_ =~ /^\d/ } OpenDir("/Volumes/fig/orgs", 0, 1);      my @fields = Tracer::ParseRecord($line);
2198    
2199  Returns the names of all files in C</Volumes/fig/orgs> that begin with digits and  Parse a tab-delimited data line. The data line is split into field values. Embedded tab
2200  automatically returns an empty list if the directory fails to open.  and new-line characters in the data line must be represented as C<\t> and C<\n>, respectively.
2201    These will automatically be converted.
2202    
2203  =over 4  =over 4
2204    
2205  =item dirName  =item line
   
 Name of the directory to open.  
   
 =item filtered  
2206    
2207  TRUE if files whose names begin with a period (C<.>) should be automatically removed  Line of data containing the tab-delimited fields.
 from the list, else FALSE.  
2208    
2209  =item flag  =item RETURN
2210    
2211  TRUE if a failure to open is okay, else FALSE  Returns a list of the fields found in the data line.
2212    
2213  =back  =back
2214    
2215  =cut  =cut
2216  #: Return Type @;  
2217  sub OpenDir {  sub ParseRecord {
2218      # Get the parameters.      # Get the parameter.
2219      my ($dirName, $filtered, $flag) = @_;      my ($line) = @_;
2220      # Declare the return variable.      # Remove the trailing new-line, if any.
2221      my @retVal = ();      chomp $line;
2222      # Open the directory.      # Split the line read into pieces using the tab character.
2223      if (opendir(my $dirHandle, $dirName)) {      my @retVal = split /\t/, $line;
2224          # The directory opened successfully. Get the appropriate list according to the      # Trim and fix the escapes in each piece.
2225          # strictures of the filter parameter.      for my $value (@retVal) {
2226          if ($filtered) {          # Trim leading whitespace.
2227              @retVal = grep { $_ !~ /^[\.\$\#]/ && $_ !~ /~$/ } readdir $dirHandle;          $value =~ s/^\s+//;
2228          } else {          # Trim trailing whitespace.
2229              @retVal = readdir $dirHandle;          $value =~ s/\s+$//;
2230          }          # Delete the carriage returns.
2231      } elsif (! $flag) {          $value =~ s/\r//g;
2232          # Here the directory would not open and it's considered an error.          # Convert the escapes into their real values.
2233          Confess("Could not open directory $dirName.");          $value =~ s/\\t/"\t"/ge;
2234            $value =~ s/\\n/"\n"/ge;
2235      }      }
2236      # Return the result.      # Return the result.
2237      return @retVal;      return @retVal;
2238  }  }
2239    
2240  =head3 SetLevel  =head3 Merge
2241    
2242  C<< Tracer::SetLevel($newLevel); >>      my @mergedList = Tracer::Merge(@inputList);
2243    
2244  Modify the trace level. A higher trace level will cause more messages to appear.  Sort a list of strings and remove duplicates.
2245    
2246  =over 4  =over 4
2247    
2248  =item newLevel  =item inputList
2249    
2250  Proposed new trace level.  List of scalars to sort and merge.
2251    
2252    =item RETURN
2253    
2254    Returns a list containing the same elements sorted in ascending order with duplicates
2255    removed.
2256    
2257  =back  =back
2258    
2259  =cut  =cut
2260    
2261  sub SetLevel {  sub Merge {
2262      $TraceLevel = $_[0];      # Get the input list in sort order.
2263        my @inputList = sort @_;
2264        # Only proceed if the list has at least two elements.
2265        if (@inputList > 1) {
2266            # Now we want to move through the list splicing out duplicates.
2267            my $i = 0;
2268            while ($i < @inputList) {
2269                # Get the current entry.
2270                my $thisEntry = $inputList[$i];
2271                # Find out how many elements duplicate the current entry.
2272                my $j = $i + 1;
2273                my $dup1 = $i + 1;
2274                while ($j < @inputList && $inputList[$j] eq $thisEntry) { $j++; };
2275                # If the number is nonzero, splice out the duplicates found.
2276                if ($j > $dup1) {
2277                    splice @inputList, $dup1, $j - $dup1;
2278                }
2279                # Now the element at position $dup1 is different from the element before it
2280                # at position $i. We push $i forward one position and start again.
2281                $i++;
2282            }
2283        }
2284        # Return the merged list.
2285        return @inputList;
2286  }  }
2287    
2288  =head3 Now  =head3 Open
   
 C<< my $string = Tracer::Now(); >>  
2289    
2290  Return a displayable time stamp containing the local time.      my $handle = Open($fileHandle, $fileSpec, $message);
2291    
2292  =cut  Open a file.
2293    
2294  sub Now {  The I<$fileSpec> is essentially the second argument of the PERL C<open>
2295      my ($sec,$min,$hour,$mday,$mon,$year,$wday,$yday,$isdst) = localtime(time);  function. The mode is specified using Unix-like shell information. So, for
2296      my $retVal = _p2($mon+1) . "/" . _p2($mday) . "/" . ($year + 1900) . " " .  example,
                  _p2($hour) . ":" . _p2($min) . ":" . _p2($sec);  
     return $retVal;  
 }  
2297    
2298  # Pad a number to 2 digits.      Open(\*LOGFILE, '>>/usr/spool/news/twitlog', "Could not open twit log.");
 sub _p2 {  
     my ($value) = @_;  
     $value = "0$value" if ($value < 10);  
     return $value;  
 }  
2299    
2300  =head3 LogErrors  would open for output appended to the specified file, and
2301    
2302  C<< Tracer::LogErrors($fileName); >>      Open(\*DATASTREAM, "| sort -u >$outputFile", "Could not open $outputFile.");
2303    
2304  Route the standard error output to a log file.  would open a pipe that sorts the records written and removes duplicates. Note
2305    the use of file handle syntax in the Open call. To use anonymous file handles,
2306    code as follows.
2307    
2308  =over 4      my $logFile = Open(undef, '>>/usr/spool/news/twitlog', "Could not open twit log.");
2309    
2310  =item fileName  The I<$message> parameter is used if the open fails. If it is set to C<0>, then
2311    the open returns TRUE if successful and FALSE if an error occurred. Otherwise, a
2312    failed open will throw an exception and the third parameter will be used to construct
2313    an error message. If the parameter is omitted, a standard message is constructed
2314    using the file spec.
2315    
2316  Name of the file to receive the error output.      Could not open "/usr/spool/news/twitlog"
2317    
2318  =back  Note that the mode characters are automatically cleaned from the file name.
2319    The actual error message from the file system will be captured and appended to the
2320    message in any case.
2321    
2322  =cut      Could not open "/usr/spool/news/twitlog": file not found.
2323    
2324  sub LogErrors {  In some versions of PERL the only error message we get is a number, which
2325      # Get the file name.  corresponds to the C++ C<errno> value.
     my ($fileName) = @_;  
     # Open the file as the standard error output.  
     open STDERR, '>', $fileName;  
 }  
2326    
2327  =head3 ReadOptions      Could not open "/usr/spool/news/twitlog": 6.
2328    
2329  C<< my %options = Tracer::ReadOptions($fileName); >>  =over 4
2330    
2331  Read a set of options from a file. Each option is encoded in a line of text that has the  =item fileHandle
 format  
2332    
2333  I<optionName>C<=>I<optionValue>C<; >I<comment>  File handle. If this parameter is C<undef>, a file handle will be generated
2334    and returned as the value of this method.
2335    
2336  The option name must consist entirely of letters, digits, and the punctuation characters  =item fileSpec
 C<.> and C<_>, and is case sensitive. Blank lines and lines in which the first nonblank  
 character is a semi-colon will be ignored. The return hash will map each option name to  
 the corresponding option value.  
2337    
2338  =over 4  File name and mode, as per the PERL C<open> function.
2339    
2340  =item fileName  =item message (optional)
2341    
2342  Name of the file containing the option data.  Error message to use if the open fails. If omitted, a standard error message
2343    will be generated. In either case, the error information from the file system
2344    is appended to the message. To specify a conditional open that does not throw
2345    an error if it fails, use C<0>.
2346    
2347  =item RETURN  =item RETURN
2348    
2349  Returns a hash mapping the option names specified in the file to their corresponding option  Returns the name of the file handle assigned to the file, or C<undef> if the
2350  value.  open failed.
2351    
2352  =back  =back
2353    
2354  =cut  =cut
2355    
2356  sub ReadOptions {  sub Open {
2357      # Get the parameters.      # Get the parameters.
2358      my ($fileName) = @_;      my ($fileHandle, $fileSpec, $message) = @_;
2359      # Open the file.      # Attempt to open the file.
2360      (open CONFIGFILE, "<$fileName") || Confess("Could not open option file $fileName.");      my $rv = open $fileHandle, $fileSpec;
2361      # Count the number of records read.      # If the open failed, generate an error message.
2362      my ($records, $comments) = 0;      if (! $rv) {
2363      # Create the return hash.          # Save the system error message.
2364      my %retVal = ();          my $sysMessage = $!;
2365      # Loop through the file, accumulating key-value pairs.          # See if we need a default message.
2366      while (my $line = <CONFIGFILE>) {          if (!$message) {
2367          # Denote we've read a line.              # Clean any obvious mode characters and leading spaces from the
2368          $records++;              # filename.
2369          # Determine the line type.              my ($fileName) = FindNamePart($fileSpec);
2370          if ($line =~ /^\s*[\n\r]/) {              $message = "Could not open \"$fileName\"";
             # A blank line is a comment.  
             $comments++;  
         } elsif ($line =~ /^\s*([A-Za-z0-9_\.]+)=([^;]*);/) {  
             # Here we have an option assignment.  
             retVal{$1} = $2;  
         } elsif ($line =~ /^\s*;/) {  
             # Here we have a text comment.  
             $comments++;  
         } else {  
             # Here we have an invalid line.  
             Trace("Invalid option statement in record $records.") if T(0);  
2371          }          }
2372            # Terminate with an error using the supplied message and the
2373            # error message from the file system.
2374            Confess("$message: $!");
2375      }      }
2376      # Return the hash created.      # Return the file handle.
2377      return %retVal;      return $fileHandle;
2378  }  }
2379    
2380  =head3 GetOptions  =head3 FindNamePart
   
 C<< Tracer::GetOptions(\%defaults, \%options); >>  
   
 Merge a specified set of options into a table of defaults. This method takes two hash references  
 as input and uses the data from the second to update the first. If the second does not exist,  
 there will be no effect. An error will be thrown if one of the entries in the second hash does not  
 exist in the first.  
2381    
2382  Consider the following example.      my ($fileName, $start, $len) = Tracer::FindNamePart($fileSpec);
2383    
2384  C<< my $optionTable = GetOptions({ dbType => 'mySQL', trace => 0 }, $options); >>  Extract the portion of a file specification that contains the file name.
2385    
2386  In this example, the variable B<$options> is expected to contain at most two options-- B<dbType> and  A file specification is the string passed to an C<open> call. It specifies the file
2387  B<trace>. The default database type is C<mySQL> and the default trace level is C<0>. If the value of  mode and name. In a truly complex situation, it can specify a pipe sequence. This
2388  B<$options> is C<< {dbType => 'Oracle'} >>, then the database type will be changed to C<Oracle> and  method assumes that the file name is whatever follows the first angle bracket
2389  the trace level will remain at 0. If B<$options> is undefined, then the database type and trace level  sequence.  So, for example, in the following strings the file name is
2390  will remain C<mySQL> and C<0>. If, on the other hand, B<$options> is defined as  C</usr/fig/myfile.txt>.
2391    
2392  C<< {databaseType => 'Oracle'} >>      >>/usr/fig/myfile.txt
2393        </usr/fig/myfile.txt
2394        | sort -u > /usr/fig/myfile.txt
2395    
2396  an error will occur because the B<databaseType> option does not exist.  If the method cannot find a file name using its normal methods, it will return the
2397    whole incoming string.
2398    
2399  =over 4  =over 4
2400    
2401  =item defaults  =item fileSpec
   
 Table of default option values.  
   
 =item options  
2402    
2403  Table of overrides, if any.  File specification string from which the file name is to be extracted.
2404    
2405  =item RETURN  =item RETURN
2406    
2407  Returns a reference to the default table passed in as the first parameter.  Returns a three-element list. The first element contains the file name portion of
2408    the specified string, or the whole string if a file name cannot be found via normal
2409    methods. The second element contains the start position of the file name portion and
2410    the third element contains the length.
2411    
2412  =back  =back
2413    
2414  =cut  =cut
2415    #: Return Type $;
2416  sub GetOptions {  sub FindNamePart {
2417      # Get the parameters.      # Get the parameters.
2418      my ($defaults, $options) = @_;      my ($fileSpec) = @_;
2419      # Check for overrides.      # Default to the whole input string.
2420      if ($options) {      my ($retVal, $pos, $len) = ($fileSpec, 0, length $fileSpec);
2421          # Loop through the overrides.      # Parse out the file name if we can.
2422          while (my ($option, $setting) = each %{$options}) {      if ($fileSpec =~ m/(<|>>?)(.+?)(\s*)$/) {
2423              # Insure this override exists.          $retVal = $2;
2424              if (!exists $defaults->{$option}) {          $len = length $retVal;
2425                  croak "Unrecognized option $option encountered.";          $pos = (length $fileSpec) - (length $3) - $len;
             } else {  
                 # Apply the override.  
                 $defaults->{$option} = $setting;  
             }  
         }  
2426      }      }
2427      # Return the merged table.      # Return the result.
2428      return $defaults;      return ($retVal, $pos, $len);
2429  }  }
2430    
2431  =head3 MergeOptions  =head3 OpenDir
   
 C<< Tracer::MergeOptions(\%table, \%defaults); >>  
2432    
2433  Merge default values into a hash table. This method looks at the key-value pairs in the      my @files = OpenDir($dirName, $filtered, $flag);
 second (default) hash, and if a matching key is not found in the first hash, the default  
 pair is copied in. The process is similar to L</GetOptions>, but there is no error-  
 checking and no return value.  
2434    
2435  =over 4  Open a directory and return all the file names. This function essentially performs
2436    the functions of an C<opendir> and C<readdir>. If the I<$filtered> parameter is
2437    set to TRUE, all filenames beginning with a period (C<.>), dollar sign (C<$>),
2438    or pound sign (C<#>) and all filenames ending with a tilde C<~>) will be
2439    filtered out of the return list. If the directory does not open and I<$flag> is not
2440    set, an exception is thrown. So, for example,
2441    
2442  =item table      my @files = OpenDir("/Volumes/fig/contigs", 1);
2443    
2444  Hash table to be updated with the default values.  is effectively the same as
2445    
2446  =item defaults      opendir(TMP, "/Volumes/fig/contigs") || Confess("Could not open /Volumes/fig/contigs.");
2447        my @files = grep { $_ !~ /^[\.\$\#]/ && $_ !~ /~$/ } readdir(TMP);
2448    
2449  Default values to be merged into the first hash table if they are not already present.  Similarly, the following code
2450    
2451  =back      my @files = grep { $_ =~ /^\d/ } OpenDir("/Volumes/fig/orgs", 0, 1);
2452    
2453  =cut  Returns the names of all files in C</Volumes/fig/orgs> that begin with digits and
2454    automatically returns an empty list if the directory fails to open.
2455    
2456  sub MergeOptions {  =over 4
     # Get the parameters.  
     my ($table, $defaults) = @_;  
     # Loop through the defaults.  
     while (my ($key, $value) = each %{$defaults}) {  
         if (!exists $table->{$key}) {  
             $table->{$key} = $value;  
         }  
     }  
 }  
2457    
2458  =head3 Trace  =item dirName
2459    
2460  C<< Trace($message); >>  Name of the directory to open.
2461    
2462  Write a trace message to the target location specified in L</TSetup>. If there has not been  =item filtered
 any prior call to B<TSetup>.  
2463    
2464  =over 4  TRUE if files whose names begin with a period (C<.>) should be automatically removed
2465    from the list, else FALSE.
2466    
2467  =item message  =item flag
2468    
2469  Message to write.  TRUE if a failure to open is okay, else FALSE
2470    
2471  =back  =back
2472    
2473  =cut  =cut
2474    #: Return Type @;
2475  sub Trace {  sub OpenDir {
2476      # Get the parameters.      # Get the parameters.
2477      my ($message) = @_;      my ($dirName, $filtered, $flag) = @_;
2478      # Get the timestamp.      # Declare the return variable.
2479      my $timeStamp = Now();      my @retVal = ();
2480      # Format the message. Note we strip off any line terminators at the end.      # Open the directory.
2481      my $formatted = "$timeStamp <$LastCategory>: " . Strip($message);      if (opendir(my $dirHandle, $dirName)) {
2482      # Process according to the destination.          # The directory opened successfully. Get the appropriate list according to the
2483      if ($Destination eq "TEXT") {          # strictures of the filter parameter.
2484          # Write the message to the standard output.          if ($filtered) {
2485          print "$formatted\n";              @retVal = grep { $_ !~ /^[\.\$\#]/ && $_ !~ /~$/ } readdir $dirHandle;
2486      } elsif ($Destination eq "ERROR") {          } else {
2487          # Write the message to the error output.              @retVal = readdir $dirHandle;
         print STDERR "$formatted\n";  
     } elsif ($Destination eq "QUEUE") {  
         # Push the message into the queue.  
         push @Queue, "$formatted";  
     } elsif ($Destination eq "HTML") {  
         # Convert the message to HTML and write it to the standard output.  
         my $escapedMessage = CGI::escapeHTML($message);  
         print "<p>$formatted</p>\n";  
     } elsif ($Destination eq "WARN") {  
        # Emit the message as a warning.  
        warn $message;  
     } elsif ($Destination =~ m/^>>/) {  
         # Write the trace message to an output file.  
         (open TRACING, $Destination) || die "Tracing open for \"$Destination\" failed: $!";  
         print TRACING "$formatted\n";  
         close TRACING;  
         # If the Tee flag is on, echo it to the standard output.  
         if ($TeeFlag) {  
             print "$formatted\n";  
2488          }          }
2489        } elsif (! $flag) {
2490            # Here the directory would not open and it's considered an error.
2491            Confess("Could not open directory $dirName.");
2492      }      }
2493        # Return the result.
2494        return @retVal;
2495  }  }
2496    
 =head3 T  
   
 C<< my $switch = T($category, $traceLevel); >>  
2497    
2498      or  =head3 Insure
2499    
2500  C<< my $switch = T($traceLevel); >>      Insure($dirName, $chmod);
2501    
2502  Return TRUE if the trace level is at or above a specified value and the specified category  Insure a directory is present.
 is active, else FALSE. If no category is specified, the caller's package name is used.  
2503    
2504  =over 4  =over 4
2505    
2506  =item category  =item dirName
   
 Category to which the message belongs. If not specified, the caller's package name is  
 used.  
   
 =item traceLevel  
2507    
2508  Relevant tracing level.  Name of the directory to check. If it does not exist, it will be created.
2509    
2510  =item RETURN  =item chmod (optional)
2511    
2512  TRUE if a message at the specified trace level would appear in the trace, else FALSE.  Security privileges to be given to the directory if it is created.
2513    
2514  =back  =back
2515    
2516  =cut  =cut
2517    
2518  sub T {  sub Insure {
2519      # Declare the return variable.      my ($dirName, $chmod) = @_;
2520      my $retVal = 0;      if (! -d $dirName) {
2521      # Only proceed if tracing is turned on.          Trace("Creating $dirName directory.") if T(2);
2522      if ($Destination ne "NONE") {          eval {
2523          # Get the parameters.              mkpath $dirName;
2524          my ($category, $traceLevel) = @_;              # If we have permissions specified, set them here.
2525          if (!defined $traceLevel) {              if (defined($chmod)) {
2526              # Here we have no category, so we need to get the calling package.                  chmod $chmod, $dirName;
             # The calling package is normally the first parameter. If it is  
             # omitted, the first parameter will be the tracelevel. So, the  
             # first thing we do is shift the so-called category into the  
             # $traceLevel variable where it belongs.  
             $traceLevel = $category;  
             my ($package, $fileName, $line) = caller;  
             # If there is no calling package, we default to "main".  
             if (!$package) {  
                 $category = "main";  
             } else {  
                 $category = $package;  
             }  
2527          }          }
2528          # Save the category name.          };
2529          $LastCategory = $category;          if ($@) {
2530          # Convert it to lower case before we hash it.              Confess("Error creating $dirName: $@");
         $category = lc $category;  
         # Use the category and tracelevel to compute the result.  
         if (ref $traceLevel) {  
             Confess("Bad trace level.");  
         } elsif (ref $TraceLevel) {  
             Confess("Bad trace config.");  
2531          }          }
         $retVal = ($traceLevel <= $TraceLevel && ($AllTrace || exists $Categories{$category}));  
2532      }      }
     # Return the computed result.  
     return $retVal;  
2533  }  }
2534    
2535  =head3 ParseCommand  =head3 ChDir
   
 C<< my ($options, @arguments) = Tracer::ParseCommand(\%optionTable, @inputList); >>  
   
 Parse a command line consisting of a list of parameters. The initial parameters may be option  
 specifiers of the form C<->I<option> or C<->I<option>C<=>I<value>. The options are stripped  
 off and merged into a table of default options. The remainder of the command line is  
 returned as a list of positional arguments. For example, consider the following invocation.  
   
 C<< my ($options, @arguments) = ParseCommand({ errors => 0, logFile => 'trace.log'}, @words); >>  
2536    
2537  In this case, the list @words will be treated as a command line. There are two options available,      ChDir($dirName);
 B<errors> and B<logFile>. If @words has the following format  
2538    
2539  C<< -logFile=error.log apple orange rutabaga >>  Change to the specified directory.
2540    
2541  then at the end of the invocation, C<$options> will be  =over 4
2542    
2543  C<< { errors => 0, logFile => 'error.log' } >>  =item dirName
2544    
2545  and C<@arguments> will contain  Name of the directory to which we want to change.
2546    
2547  C<< apple orange rutabaga >>  =back
2548    
2549  The parser allows for some escape sequences. See L</UnEscape> for a description. There is no  =cut
 support for quote characters.  
2550    
2551  =over 4  sub ChDir {
2552        my ($dirName) = @_;
2553        if (! -d $dirName) {
2554            Confess("Cannot change to directory $dirName: no such directory.");
2555        } else {
2556            Trace("Changing to directory $dirName.") if T(File => 4);
2557            my $okFlag = chdir $dirName;
2558            if (! $okFlag) {
2559                Confess("Error switching to directory $dirName.");
2560            }
2561        }
2562    }
2563    
2564  =item optionTable  =head3 SetPermissions
2565    
2566  Table of default options.      Tracer::SetPermissions($dirName, $group, $mask, %otherMasks);
2567    
2568  =item inputList  Set the permissions for a directory and all the files and folders inside it.
2569    In addition, the group ownership will be changed to the specified value.
2570    
2571  List of words on the command line.  This method is more vulnerable than most to permission and compatability
2572    problems, so it does internal error recovery.
2573    
2574  =item RETURN  =over 4
2575    
2576  Returns a reference to the option table and a list of the positional arguments.  =item dirName
2577    
2578  =back  Name of the directory to process.
2579    
2580  =cut  =item group
2581    
2582  sub ParseCommand {  Name of the group to be assigned.
     # Get the parameters.  
     my ($optionTable, @inputList) = @_;  
     # Process any options in the input list.  
     my %overrides = ();  
     while ((@inputList > 0) && ($inputList[0] =~ /^-/)) {  
         # Get the current option.  
         my $arg = shift @inputList;  
         # Pull out the option name.  
         $arg =~ /^-([^=]*)/g;  
         my $name = $1;  
         # Check for an option value.  
         if ($arg =~ /\G=(.*)$/g) {  
             # Here we have a value for the option.  
             $overrides{$name} = UnEscape($1);  
         } else {  
             # Here there is no value, so we use 1.  
             $overrides{$name} = 1;  
         }  
     }  
     # Merge the options into the defaults.  
     GetOptions($optionTable, \%overrides);  
     # Translate the remaining parameters.  
     my @retVal = ();  
     for my $inputParm (@inputList) {  
         push @retVal, UnEscape($inputParm);  
     }  
     # Return the results.  
     return ($optionTable, @retVal);  
 }  
2583    
2584  =head3 Escape  =item mask
2585    
2586  C<< my $codedString = Tracer::Escape($realString); >>  Permission mask. Bits that are C<1> in this mask will be ORed into the
2587    permission bits of any file or directory that does not already have them
2588    set to 1.
2589    
2590  Escape a string for use in a command length. Tabs will be replaced by C<\t>, new-lines  =item otherMasks
 replaced by C<\n>, carriage returns will be deleted, and backslashes will be doubled. The  
 result is to reverse the effect of L</UnEscape>.  
2591    
2592  =over 4  Map of search patterns to permission masks. If a directory name matches
2593    one of the patterns, that directory and all its members and subdirectories
2594    will be assigned the new pattern. For example, the following would
2595    assign 01664 to most files, but would use 01777 for directories named C<tmp>.
2596    
2597  =item realString      Tracer::SetPermissions($dirName, 'fig', 01664, '^tmp$' => 01777);
2598    
2599  String to escape.  The list is ordered, so the following would use 0777 for C<tmp1> and
2600    0666 for C<tmp>, C<tmp2>, or C<tmp3>.
2601    
2602  =item RETURN      Tracer::SetPermissions($dirName, 'fig', 01664, '^tmp1' => 0777,
2603                                                       '^tmp' => 0666);
2604    
2605  Escaped equivalent of the real string.  Note that the pattern matches are all case-insensitive, and only directory
2606    names are matched, not file names.
2607    
2608  =back  =back
2609    
2610  =cut  =cut
2611    
2612  sub Escape {  sub SetPermissions {
2613      # Get the parameter.      # Get the parameters.
2614      my ($realString) = @_;      my ($dirName, $group, $mask, @otherMasks) = @_;
2615      # Initialize the return variable.      # Set up for error recovery.
2616      my $retVal = "";      eval {
2617      # Loop through the parameter string, looking for sequences to escape.          # Switch to the specified directory.
2618      while (length $realString > 0) {          ChDir($dirName);
2619          # Look for the first sequence to escape.          # Get the group ID.
2620          if ($realString =~ /^(.*?)([\n\t\r\\])/) {          my $gid = getgrnam($group);
2621              # Here we found it. The text preceding the sequence is in $1. The sequence          # Get the mask for tracing.
2622              # itself is in $2. First, move the clear text to the return variable.          my $traceMask = sprintf("%04o", $mask) . "($mask)";
2623              $retVal .= $1;          Trace("Fixing permissions for directory $dirName using group $group($gid) and mask $traceMask.") if T(File => 2);
2624              # Strip the processed section off the real string.          my $fixCount = 0;
2625              $realString = substr $realString, (length $2) + (length $1);          my $lookCount = 0;
2626              # Get the matched character.          # @dirs will be a stack of directories to be processed.
2627              my $char = $2;          my @dirs = (getcwd());
2628              # If we have a CR, we are done.          while (scalar(@dirs) > 0) {
2629              if ($char ne "\r") {              # Get the current directory.
2630                  # It's not a CR, so encode the escape sequence.              my $dir = pop @dirs;
2631                  $char =~ tr/\t\n/tn/;              # Check for a match to one of the specified directory names. To do
2632                  $retVal .= "\\" . $char;              # that, we need to pull the individual part of the name off of the
2633                # whole path.
2634                my $simpleName = $dir;
2635                if ($dir =~ m!/([^/]+)$!) {
2636                    $simpleName = $1;
2637                }
2638                Trace("Simple directory name for $dir is $simpleName.") if T(File => 4);
2639                # Search for a match.
2640                my $match = 0;
2641                my $i;
2642                for ($i = 0; $i < $#otherMasks && ! $match; $i += 2) {
2643                    my $pattern = $otherMasks[$i];
2644                    if ($simpleName =~ /$pattern/i) {
2645                        $match = 1;
2646                    }
2647                }
2648                # Check for a match. Note we use $i-1 because the loop added 2
2649                # before terminating due to the match.
2650                if ($match && $otherMasks[$i-1] != $mask) {
2651                    # This directory matches one of the incoming patterns, and it's
2652                    # a different mask, so we process it recursively with that mask.
2653                    SetPermissions($dir, $group, $otherMasks[$i-1], @otherMasks);
2654                } else {
2655                    # Here we can process normally. Get all of the non-hidden members.
2656                    my @submems = OpenDir($dir, 1);
2657                    for my $submem (@submems) {
2658                        # Get the full name.
2659                        my $thisMem = "$dir/$submem";
2660                        Trace("Checking member $thisMem.") if T(4);
2661                        $lookCount++;
2662                        if ($lookCount % 1000 == 0) {
2663                            Trace("$lookCount members examined. Current is $thisMem. Mask is $traceMask") if T(File => 3);
2664                        }
2665                        # Fix the group.
2666                        chown -1, $gid, $thisMem;
2667                        # Insure this member is not a symlink.
2668                        if (! -l $thisMem) {
2669                            # Get its info.
2670                            my $fileInfo = stat $thisMem;
2671                            # Only proceed if we got the info. Otherwise, it's a hard link
2672                            # and we want to skip it anyway.
2673                            if ($fileInfo) {
2674                                my $fileMode = $fileInfo->mode;
2675                                if (($fileMode & $mask) != $mask) {
2676                                    # Fix this member.
2677                                    $fileMode |= $mask;
2678                                    chmod $fileMode, $thisMem;
2679                                    $fixCount++;
2680                                }
2681                                # If it's a subdirectory, stack it.
2682                                if (-d $thisMem) {
2683                                    push @dirs, $thisMem;
2684                                }
2685                            }
2686                        }
2687                    }
2688              }              }
         } else {  
             # Here there are no more escape sequences. The rest of the string is  
             # transferred unmodified.  
             $retVal .= $realString;  
             $realString = "";  
2689          }          }
2690            Trace("$lookCount files and directories processed, $fixCount fixed.") if T(File => 2);
2691        };
2692        # Check for an error.
2693        if ($@) {
2694            Confess("SetPermissions error: $@");
2695      }      }
     # Return the result.  
     return $retVal;  
2696  }  }
2697    
2698  =head3 UnEscape  =head3 GetLine
2699    
2700  C<< my $realString = Tracer::UnEscape($codedString); >>      my @data = Tracer::GetLine($handle);
2701    
2702  Replace escape sequences with their actual equivalents. C<\t> will be replaced by  Read a line of data from a tab-delimited file.
 a tab, C<\n> by a new-line character, and C<\\> by a backslash. C<\r> codes will  
 be deleted.  
2703    
2704  =over 4  =over 4
2705    
2706  =item codedString  =item handle
2707    
2708  String to un-escape.  Open file handle from which to read.
2709    
2710  =item RETURN  =item RETURN
2711    
2712  Returns a copy of the original string with the escape sequences converted to their actual  Returns a list of the fields in the record read. The fields are presumed to be
2713  values.  tab-delimited. If we are at the end of the file, then an empty list will be
2714    returned. If an empty line is read, a single list item consisting of a null
2715    string will be returned.
2716    
2717  =back  =back
2718    
2719  =cut  =cut
2720    
2721  sub UnEscape {  sub GetLine {
2722      # Get the parameter.      # Get the parameters.
2723      my ($codedString) = @_;      my ($handle) = @_;
2724      # Initialize the return variable.      # Declare the return variable.
2725      my $retVal = "";      my @retVal = ();
2726      # Only proceed if the incoming string is nonempty.      Trace("File position is " . tell($handle) . ". EOF flag is " . eof($handle) . ".") if T(File => 4);
2727      if (defined $codedString) {      # Read from the file.
2728          # Loop through the parameter string, looking for escape sequences. We can't do      my $line = <$handle>;
2729          # translating because it causes problems with the escaped slash. ("\\t" becomes      # Only proceed if we found something.
2730          # "\<tab>" no matter what we do.)      if (defined $line) {
2731          while (length $codedString > 0) {          # Remove the new-line. We are a bit over-cautious here because the file may be coming in via an
2732              # Look for the first escape sequence.          # upload control and have a nonstandard EOL combination.
2733              if ($codedString =~ /^(.*?)\\(\\|n|t|r)/) {          $line =~ s/(\r|\n)+$//;
2734                  # Here we found it. The text preceding the sequence is in $1. The sequence          # Here we do some fancy tracing to help in debugging complicated EOL marks.
2735                  # itself is in $2. First, move the clear text to the return variable.          if (T(File => 4)) {
2736                  $retVal .= $1;              my $escapedLine = $line;
2737                  $codedString = substr $codedString, (2 + length $1);              $escapedLine =~ s/\n/\\n/g;
2738                  # Get the escape value.              $escapedLine =~ s/\r/\\r/g;
2739                  my $char = $2;              $escapedLine =~ s/\t/\\t/g;
2740                  # If we have a "\r", we are done.              Trace("Line read: -->$escapedLine<--");
2741                  if ($char ne 'r') {          }
2742                      # Here it's not an 'r', so we convert it.          # If the line is empty, return a single empty string; otherwise, parse
2743                      $char =~ tr/\\tn/\\\t\n/;          # it into fields.
2744                      $retVal .= $char;          if ($line eq "") {
2745                  }              push @retVal, "";
2746              } else {              } else {
2747                  # Here there are no more escape sequences. The rest of the string is              push @retVal, split /\t/,$line;
                 # transferred unmodified.  
                 $retVal .= $codedString;  
                 $codedString = "";  
             }  
2748          }          }
2749        } else {
2750            # Trace the reason the read failed.
2751            Trace("End of file: $!") if T(File => 3);
2752      }      }
2753      # Return the result.      # Return the result.
2754      return $retVal;      return @retVal;
2755  }  }
2756    
2757  =head3 ParseRecord  =head3 PutLine
2758    
2759  C<< my @fields = Tracer::ParseRecord($line); >>      Tracer::PutLine($handle, \@fields, $eol);
2760    
2761  Parse a tab-delimited data line. The data line is split into field values. Embedded tab  Write a line of data to a tab-delimited file. The specified field values will be
2762  and new-line characters in the data line must be represented as C<\t> and C<\n>, respectively.  output in tab-separated form, with a trailing new-line.
 These will automatically be converted.  
2763    
2764  =over 4  =over 4
2765    
2766  =item line  =item handle
2767    
2768  Line of data containing the tab-delimited fields.  Output file handle.
2769    
2770  =item RETURN  =item fields
2771    
2772  Returns a list of the fields found in the data line.  List of field values.
2773    
2774    =item eol (optional)
2775    
2776    End-of-line character (default is "\n").
2777    
2778  =back  =back
2779    
2780  =cut  =cut
2781    
2782  sub ParseRecord {  sub PutLine {
2783      # Get the parameter.      # Get the parameters.
2784      my ($line) = @_;      my ($handle, $fields, $eol) = @_;
2785      # Remove the trailing new-line, if any.      # Write the data.
2786      chomp $line;      print $handle join("\t", @{$fields}) . ($eol || "\n");
     # Split the line read into pieces using the tab character.  
     my @retVal = split /\t/, $line;  
     # Trim and fix the escapes in each piece.  
     for my $value (@retVal) {  
         # Trim leading whitespace.  
         $value =~ s/^\s+//;  
         # Trim trailing whitespace.  
         $value =~ s/\s+$//;  
         # Delete the carriage returns.  
         $value =~ s/\r//g;  
         # Convert the escapes into their real values.  
         $value =~ s/\\t/"\t"/ge;  
         $value =~ s/\\n/"\n"/ge;  
     }  
     # Return the result.  
     return @retVal;  
2787  }  }
2788    
 =head3 Merge  
   
 C<< my @mergedList = Tracer::Merge(@inputList); >>  
2789    
2790  Sort a list of strings and remove duplicates.  =head3 PrintLine
2791    
2792  =over 4      Tracer::PrintLine($line);
2793    
2794  =item inputList  Print a line of text with a trailing new-line.
2795    
2796  List of scalars to sort and merge.  =over 4
2797    
2798  =item RETURN  =item line
2799    
2800  Returns a list containing the same elements sorted in ascending order with duplicates  Line of text to print.
 removed.  
2801    
2802  =back  =back
2803    
2804  =cut  =cut
2805    
2806  sub Merge {  sub PrintLine {
2807      # Get the input list in sort order.      # Get the parameters.
2808      my @inputList = sort @_;      my ($line) = @_;
2809      # Only proceed if the list has at least two elements.      # Print the line.
2810      if (@inputList > 1) {      print "$line\n";
         # Now we want to move through the list splicing out duplicates.  
         my $i = 0;  
         while ($i < @inputList) {  
             # Get the current entry.  
             my $thisEntry = $inputList[$i];  
             # Find out how many elements duplicate the current entry.  
             my $j = $i + 1;  
             my $dup1 = $i + 1;  
             while ($j < @inputList && $inputList[$j] eq $thisEntry) { $j++; };  
             # If the number is nonzero, splice out the duplicates found.  
             if ($j > $dup1) {  
                 splice @inputList, $dup1, $j - $dup1;  
             }  
             # Now the element at position $dup1 is different from the element before it  
             # at position $i. We push $i forward one position and start again.  
             $i++;  
         }  
     }  
     # Return the merged list.  
     return @inputList;  
2811  }  }
2812    
 =head3 Percent  
2813    
2814  C<< my $percent = Tracer::Percent($number, $base); >>  =head2 Other Useful Methods
2815    
2816  Returns the percent of the base represented by the given number. If the base  =head3 ParseParm
 is zero, returns zero.  
2817    
2818  =over 4      my $listValue = Tracer::ParseParm($string);
2819    
2820  =item number  Convert a parameter into a list reference. If the parameter is undefined,
2821    an undefined value will be returned. Otherwise, it will be parsed as a
2822    comma-separated list of values.
2823    
2824  Percent numerator.  =over 4
2825    
2826  =item base  =item string
2827    
2828  Percent base.  Incoming string.
2829    
2830  =item RETURN  =item RETURN
2831    
2832  Returns the percentage of the base represented by the numerator.  Returns a reference to a list of values, or C<undef> if the incoming value
2833    was undefined.
2834    
2835  =back  =back
2836    
2837  =cut  =cut
2838    
2839  sub Percent {  sub ParseParm {
2840      # Get the parameters.      # Get the parameters.
2841      my ($number, $base) = @_;      my ($string) = @_;
2842      # Declare the return variable.      # Declare the return variable.
2843      my $retVal = 0;      my $retVal;
2844      # Compute the percent.      # Check for data.
2845      if ($base != 0) {      if (defined $string) {
2846          $retVal = $number * 100 / $base;          # We have some, so split it into a list.
2847            $retVal = [ split /\s*,\s*/, $string];
2848      }      }
2849      # Return the result.      # Return the result.
2850      return $retVal;      return $retVal;
2851  }  }
2852    
2853  =head3 GetFile  =head3 Now
2854    
2855  C<< my @fileContents = Tracer::GetFile($fileName); >>      my $string = Tracer::Now();
2856    
2857      or  Return a displayable time stamp containing the local time. Whatever format this
2858    method produces must be parseable by L</ParseDate>.
2859    
2860  C<< my $fileContents = Tracer::GetFile($fileName); >>  =cut
2861    
2862  Return the entire contents of a file. In list context, line-ends are removed and  sub Now {
2863  each line is a list element. In scalar context, line-ends are replaced by C<\n>.      return DisplayTime(time);
2864    }
2865    
2866    =head3 DisplayTime
2867    
2868        my $string = Tracer::DisplayTime($time);
2869    
2870    Convert a time value to a displayable time stamp. Whatever format this
2871    method produces must be parseable by L</ParseDate>.
2872    
2873  =over 4  =over 4
2874    
2875  =item fileName  =item time
2876    
2877  Name of the file to read.  Time to display, in seconds since the epoch, or C<undef> if the time is unknown.
2878    
2879  =item RETURN  =item RETURN
2880    
2881  In a list context, returns the entire file as a list with the line terminators removed.  Returns a displayable time, or C<(n/a)> if the incoming time is undefined.
 In a scalar context, returns the entire file as a string. If an error occurs opening  
 the file, an empty list will be returned.  
2882    
2883  =back  =back
2884    
2885  =cut  =cut
2886    
2887  sub GetFile {  sub DisplayTime {
2888      # Get the parameters.      my ($time) = @_;
2889      my ($fileName) = @_;      my $retVal = "(n/a)";
2890      # Declare the return variable.      if (defined $time) {
2891      my @retVal = ();          my ($sec,$min,$hour,$mday,$mon,$year,$wday,$yday,$isdst) = localtime($time);
2892      # Open the file for input.          $retVal = _p2($mon+1) . "/" . _p2($mday) . "/" . ($year + 1900) . " " .
2893      my $handle = Open(undef, "<$fileName");                    _p2($hour) . ":" . _p2($min) . ":" . _p2($sec);
     # Read the whole file into the return variable, stripping off any terminator  
     # characters.  
     my $lineCount = 0;  
     while (my $line = <$handle>) {  
         $lineCount++;  
         $line = Strip($line);  
         push @retVal, $line;  
2894      }      }
2895      # Close it.      return $retVal;
     close $handle;  
     my $actualLines = @retVal;  
     # Return the file's contents in the desired format.  
     if (wantarray) {  
         return @retVal;  
     } else {  
         return join "\n", @retVal;  
2896      }      }
2897    
2898    # Pad a number to 2 digits.
2899    sub _p2 {
2900        my ($value) = @_;
2901        $value = "0$value" if ($value < 10);
2902        return $value;
2903  }  }
2904    
2905  =head3 PutFile  =head3 Escape
2906    
2907  C<< Tracer::PutFile($fileName, \@lines); >>      my $codedString = Tracer::Escape($realString);
2908    
2909  Write out a file from a list of lines of text.  Escape a string for use in a command. Tabs will be replaced by C<\t>, new-lines
2910    replaced by C<\n>, carriage returns will be deleted, and backslashes will be doubled. The
2911    result is to reverse the effect of L</UnEscape>.
2912    
2913  =over 4  =over 4
2914    
2915  =item fileName  =item realString
2916    
2917  Name of the output file.  String to escape.
2918    
2919  =item lines  =item RETURN
2920    
2921  Reference to a list of text lines. The lines will be written to the file in order, with trailing  Escaped equivalent of the real string.
 new-line characters.  
2922    
2923  =back  =back
2924    
2925  =cut  =cut
2926    
2927  sub PutFile {  sub Escape {
2928      # Get the parameters.      # Get the parameter.
2929      my ($fileName, $lines) = @_;      my ($realString) = @_;
2930      # Open the output file.      # Initialize the return variable.
2931      my $handle = Open(undef, ">$fileName");      my $retVal = "";
2932      # Write the lines.      # Loop through the parameter string, looking for sequences to escape.
2933      for my $line (@{$lines}) {      while (length $realString > 0) {
2934          print $handle "$line\n";          # Look for the first sequence to escape.
2935            if ($realString =~ /^(.*?)([\n\t\r\\])/) {
2936                # Here we found it. The text preceding the sequence is in $1. The sequence
2937                # itself is in $2. First, move the clear text to the return variable.
2938                $retVal .= $1;
2939                # Strip the processed section off the real string.
2940                $realString = substr $realString, (length $2) + (length $1);
2941                # Get the matched character.
2942                my $char = $2;
2943                # If we have a CR, we are done.
2944                if ($char ne "\r") {
2945                    # It's not a CR, so encode the escape sequence.
2946                    $char =~ tr/\t\n/tn/;
2947                    $retVal .= "\\" . $char;
2948      }      }
2949      # Close the output file.          } else {
2950      close $handle;              # Here there are no more escape sequences. The rest of the string is
2951                # transferred unmodified.
2952                $retVal .= $realString;
2953                $realString = "";
2954            }
2955        }
2956        # Return the result.
2957        return $retVal;
2958  }  }
2959    
2960  =head3 QTrace  =head3 UnEscape
2961    
2962  C<< my $data = QTrace($format); >>      my $realString = Tracer::UnEscape($codedString);
2963    
2964  Return the queued trace data in the specified format.  Replace escape sequences with their actual equivalents. C<\t> will be replaced by
2965    a tab, C<\n> by a new-line character, and C<\\> by a backslash. C<\r> codes will
2966    be deleted.
2967    
2968  =over 4  =over 4
2969    
2970  =item format  =item codedString
2971    
2972  C<html> to format the data as an HTML list, C<text> to format it as straight text.  String to un-escape.
2973    
2974    =item RETURN
2975    
2976    Returns a copy of the original string with the escape sequences converted to their actual
2977    values.
2978    
2979  =back  =back
2980    
2981  =cut  =cut
2982    
2983  sub QTrace {  sub UnEscape {
2984      # Get the parameter.      # Get the parameter.
2985      my ($format) = @_;      my ($codedString) = @_;
2986      # Create the return variable.      # Initialize the return variable.
2987      my $retVal = "";      my $retVal = "";
2988      # Only proceed if there is an actual queue.      # Only proceed if the incoming string is nonempty.
2989      if (@Queue) {      if (defined $codedString) {
2990          # Process according to the format.          # Loop through the parameter string, looking for escape sequences. We can't do
2991          if ($format =~ m/^HTML$/i) {          # translating because it causes problems with the escaped slash. ("\\t" becomes
2992              # Convert the queue into an HTML list.          # "\<tab>" no matter what we do.)
2993              $retVal = "<ul>\n";          while (length $codedString > 0) {
2994              for my $line (@Queue) {              # Look for the first escape sequence.
2995                  my $escapedLine = CGI::escapeHTML($line);              if ($codedString =~ /^(.*?)\\(\\|n|t|r)/) {
2996                  $retVal .= "<li>$escapedLine</li>\n";                  # Here we found it. The text preceding the sequence is in $1. The sequence
2997                    # itself is in $2. First, move the clear text to the return variable.
2998                    $retVal .= $1;
2999                    $codedString = substr $codedString, (2 + length $1);
3000                    # Get the escape value.
3001                    my $char = $2;
3002                    # If we have a "\r", we are done.
3003                    if ($char ne 'r') {
3004                        # Here it's not an 'r', so we convert it.
3005                        $char =~ tr/\\tn/\\\t\n/;
3006                        $retVal .= $char;
3007              }              }
3008              $retVal .= "</ul>\n";              } else {
3009          } elsif ($format =~ m/^TEXT$/i) {                  # Here there are no more escape sequences. The rest of the string is
3010              # Convert the queue into a list of text lines.                  # transferred unmodified.
3011              $retVal = join("\n", @Queue) . "\n";                  $retVal .= $codedString;
3012                    $codedString = "";
3013          }          }
         # Clear the queue.  
         @Queue = ();  
3014      }      }
3015      # Return the formatted list.      }
3016        # Return the result.
3017      return $retVal;      return $retVal;
3018  }  }
3019    
3020  =head3 Confess  =head3 Percent
3021    
3022  C<< Confess($message); >>      my $percent = Tracer::Percent($number, $base);
3023    
3024  Trace the call stack and abort the program with the specified message. When used with  Returns the percent of the base represented by the given number. If the base
3025  the OR operator and the L</Assert> method, B<Confess> can function as a debugging assert.  is zero, returns zero.
 So, for example  
3026    
3027  C<< Assert($recNum >= 0) || Confess("Invalid record number $recNum."); >>  =over 4
3028    
3029  Will abort the program with a stack trace if the value of C<$recNum> is negative.  =item number
3030    
3031  =over 4  Percent numerator.
3032    
3033  =item message  =item base
3034    
3035  Message to include in the trace.  Percent base.
3036    
3037    =item RETURN
3038    
3039    Returns the percentage of the base represented by the numerator.
3040    
3041  =back  =back
3042    
3043  =cut  =cut
3044    
3045  sub Confess {  sub Percent {
3046      # Get the parameters.      # Get the parameters.
3047      my ($message) = @_;      my ($number, $base) = @_;
3048      # Trace the call stack.      # Declare the return variable.
3049      Cluck($message);      my $retVal = 0;
3050      # Abort the program.      # Compute the percent.
3051      croak(">>> $message");      if ($base != 0) {
3052            $retVal = $number * 100 / $base;
3053        }
3054        # Return the result.
3055        return $retVal;
3056  }  }
3057    
3058  =head3 Assert  =head3 Constrain
   
 C<< Assert($condition1, $condition2, ... $conditionN); >>  
   
 Return TRUE if all the conditions are true. This method can be used in conjunction with  
 the OR operator and the L</Confess> method as a debugging assert.  
 So, for example  
3059    
3060  C<< Assert($recNum >= 0) || Confess("Invalid record number $recNum."); >>      my $constrained = Constrain($value, $min, $max);
3061    
3062  Will abort the program with a stack trace if the value of C<$recNum> is negative.  Modify a numeric value to bring it to a point in between a maximum and a minimum.
3063    
3064  =cut  =over 4
 sub Assert {  
     my $retVal = 1;  
     LOOP: for my $condition (@_) {  
         if (! $condition) {  
             $retVal = 0;  
             last LOOP;  
         }  
     }  
     return $retVal;  
 }  
3065    
3066  =head3 Cluck  =item value
3067    
3068  C<< Cluck($message); >>  Value to constrain.
3069    
3070  Trace the call stack. Note that for best results, you should qualify the call with a  =item min (optional)
 trace condition. For example,  
3071    
3072  C<< Cluck("Starting record parse.") if T(3); >>  Minimum permissible value. If this parameter is undefined, no minimum constraint will be applied.
3073    
3074  will only trace the stack if the trace level for the package is 3 or more.  =item max (optional)
3075    
3076  =over 4  Maximum permissible value. If this parameter is undefined, no maximum constraint will be applied.
3077    
3078  =item message  =item RETURN
3079    
3080  Message to include in the trace.  Returns the incoming value, constrained according to the other parameters.
3081    
3082  =back  =back
3083    
3084  =cut  =cut
3085    
3086  sub Cluck {  sub Constrain {
3087      # Get the parameters.      # Get the parameters.
3088      my ($message) = @_;      my ($value, $min, $max) = @_;
3089      # Trace what's happening.      # Declare the return variable.
3090      Trace("Stack trace for event: $message");      my $retVal = $value;
3091      my $confession = longmess($message);      # Apply the minimum constraint.
3092      # Convert the confession to a series of trace messages. Note we skip any      if (defined $min && $retVal < $min) {
3093      # messages relating to calls into Tracer.          $retVal = $min;
3094      for my $line (split /\s*\n/, $confession) {      }
3095          Trace($line) if ($line !~ /Tracer\.pm/);      # Apply the maximum constraint.
3096        if (defined $max && $retVal > $max) {
3097            $retVal = $max;
3098      }      }
3099        # Return the result.
3100        return $retVal;
3101  }  }
3102    
3103  =head3 Min  =head3 Min
3104    
3105  C<< my $min = Min($value1, $value2, ... $valueN); >>      my $min = Min($value1, $value2, ... $valueN);
3106    
3107  Return the minimum argument. The arguments are treated as numbers.  Return the minimum argument. The arguments are treated as numbers.
3108    
# Line 1641  Line 3135 
3135    
3136  =head3 Max  =head3 Max
3137    
3138  C<< my $max = Max($value1, $value2, ... $valueN); >>      my $max = Max($value1, $value2, ... $valueN);
3139    
3140  Return the maximum argument. The arguments are treated as numbers.  Return the maximum argument. The arguments are treated as numbers.
3141    
# Line 1672  Line 3166 
3166      return $retVal;      return $retVal;
3167  }  }
3168    
 =head3 AddToListMap  
   
 C<< Tracer::AddToListMap(\%hash, $key, $value1, $value2, ... valueN); >>  
   
 Add a key-value pair to a hash of lists. If no value exists for the key, a singleton list  
 is created for the key. Otherwise, the new value is pushed onto the list.  
   
 =over 4  
   
 =item hash  
   
 Reference to the target hash.  
   
 =item key  
   
 Key for which the value is to be added.  
   
 =item value1, value2, ... valueN  
   
 List of values to add to the key's value list.  
   
 =back  
   
 =cut  
   
 sub AddToListMap {  
     # Get the parameters.  
     my ($hash, $key, @values) = @_;  
     # Process according to whether or not the key already has a value.  
     if (! exists $hash->{$key}) {  
         $hash->{$key} = [@values];  
     } else {  
         push @{$hash->{$key}}, @values;  
     }  
 }  
   
 =head3 DebugMode  
   
 C<< if (Tracer::DebugMode) { ...code... } >>  
   
 Return TRUE if debug mode has been turned on, else output an error  
 page and return FALSE.  
   
 Certain CGI scripts are too dangerous to exist in the production  
 environment. This method provides a simple way to prevent them  
 from working unless they are explicitly turned on by creating a password  
 cookie via the B<SetPassword> script.  If debugging mode  
 is not turned on, an error web page will be output directing the  
 user to enter in the correct password.  
   
 =cut  
   
 sub DebugMode {  
     # Declare the return variable.  
     my $retVal = 0;  
     # Check the debug configuration.  
     my $password = CGI::cookie("DebugMode");  
     my $encrypted = Digest::MD5::md5_hex($password);  
     if ($encrypted eq "252dec43280e0c0d6a75ffcec486e61d") {  
         $retVal = 1;  
     } else {  
         # Here debug mode is off, so we generate an error page.  
         my $pageString = PageBuilder::Build("<<Html/ErrorPage.html", {}, "Html");  
         print $pageString;  
     }  
     # Return the determination indicator.  
     return $retVal;  
 }  
3169    
3170  =head3 Strip  =head3 Strip
3171    
3172  C<< my $string = Tracer::Strip($line); >>      my $string = Tracer::Strip($line);
3173    
3174  Strip all line terminators off a string. This is necessary when dealing with files  Strip all line terminators off a string. This is necessary when dealing with files
3175  that may have been transferred back and forth several times among different  that may have been transferred back and forth several times among different
# Line 1775  Line 3201 
3201    
3202  =head3 Pad  =head3 Pad
3203    
3204  C<< my $paddedString = Tracer::Pad($string, $len, $left, $padChar); >>      my $paddedString = Tracer::Pad($string, $len, $left, $padChar);
3205    
3206  Pad a string to a specified length. The pad character will be a  Pad a string to a specified length. The pad character will be a
3207  space, and the padding will be on the right side unless specified  space, and the padding will be on the right side unless specified
# Line 1846  Line 3272 
3272    
3273  =head3 TICK  =head3 TICK
3274    
3275  C<< my @results = TICK($commandString); >>      my @results = TICK($commandString);
3276    
3277  Perform a back-tick operation on a command. If this is a Windows environment, any leading  Perform a back-tick operation on a command. If this is a Windows environment, any leading
3278  dot-slash (C<./> will be removed. So, for example, if you were doing  dot-slash (C<./> will be removed. So, for example, if you were doing
# Line 1885  Line 3311 
3311      return `$commandString`;      return `$commandString`;
3312  }  }
3313    
 =head3 ScriptSetup  
   
 C<< my ($query, $varHash) = ScriptSetup(); >>  
   
 Perform standard tracing and debugging setup for scripts. The value returned is  
 the CGI object followed by a pre-built variable hash.  
   
 The C<Trace> query parameter is used to determine whether or not tracing is active and  
 which trace modules (other than C<Tracer> and C<FIG>) should be turned on. Specifying  
 the C<CGI> trace module will trace parameter and environment information. Parameters are  
 traced at level 3 and environment variables at level 4. At the end of the script, the  
 client should call L</ScriptFinish> to output the web page.  
   
 =cut  
   
 sub ScriptSetup {  
     # Get the CGI query object.  
     my $query = CGI->new();  
     # Check for tracing. Set it up if the user asked for it.  
     if ($query->param('Trace')) {  
         # Set up tracing to be queued for display at the bottom of the web page.  
         TSetup($query->param('Trace') . " FIG Tracer", "QUEUE");  
         # Trace the parameter and environment data.  
         if (T(CGI => 3)) {  
             # Here we want to trace the parameter data.  
             my @names = $query->param;  
             for my $parmName (sort @names) {  
                 # Note we skip "Trace", which is for our use only.  
                 if ($parmName ne 'Trace') {  
                     my @values = $query->param($parmName);  
                     Trace("CGI: $parmName = " . join(", ", @values));  
                 }  
             }  
         }  
         if (T(CGI => 4)) {  
             # Here we want the environment data too.  
             for my $envName (sort keys %ENV) {  
                 Trace("ENV: $envName = $ENV{$envName}");  
             }  
         }  
     } else {  
         # Here tracing is to be turned off. All we allow is errors traced into the  
         # error log.  
         TSetup("0", "WARN");  
     }  
     # Create the variable hash.  
     my $varHash = { DebugData => '' };  
     # If we're in DEBUG mode, set up the debug mode data for forms.  
     if (Tracer::DebugMode) {  
         $varHash->{DebugData} = GetFile("Html/DebugFragment.html");  
     }  
     # Return the query object and variable hash.  
     return ($query, $varHash);  
 }  
   
 =head3 ScriptFinish  
   
 C<< ScriptFinish($webData, $varHash); >>  
   
 Output a web page at the end of a script. Either the string to be output or the  
 name of a template file can be specified. If the second parameter is omitted,  
 it is assumed we have a string to be output; otherwise, it is assumed we have the  
 name of a template file. The template should have the variable C<DebugData>  
 specified in any form that invokes a standard script. If debugging mode is turned  
 on, a form field will be put in that allows the user to enter tracing data.  
 Trace messages will be placed immediately before the terminal C<BODY> tag in  
 the output, formatted as a list.  
   
 A typical standard script would loook like the following.  
3314    
3315      BEGIN {  =head3 CommaFormat
         # Print the HTML header.  
         print "CONTENT-TYPE: text/html\n\n";  
     }  
     use Tracer;  
     use CGI;  
     use FIG;  
     # ... more uses ...  
3316    
3317      my ($query, $varHash) = ScriptSetup();      my $formatted = Tracer::CommaFormat($number);
     eval {  
         # ... get data from $query, put it in $varHash ...  
     };  
     if ($@) {  
         Trace("Script Error: $@") if T(0);  
     }  
     ScriptFinish("Html/MyTemplate.html", $varHash);  
3318    
3319  The idea here is that even if the script fails, you'll see trace messages and  Insert commas into a number.
 useful output.  
3320    
3321  =over 4  =over 4
3322    
3323  =item webData  =item number
   
 A string containing either the full web page to be written to the output or the  
 name of a template file from which the page is to be constructed. If the name  
 of a template file is specified, then the second parameter must be present;  
 otherwise, it must be absent.  
   
 =item varHash (optional)  
   
 If specified, then a reference to a hash mapping variable names for a template  
 to their values. The template file will be read into memory, and variable markers  
 will be replaced by data in this hash reference.  
   
 =back  
   
 =cut  
   
 sub ScriptFinish {  
     # Get the parameters.  
     my ($webData, $varHash) = @_;  
     # Check for a template file situation.  
     my $outputString;  
     if (defined $varHash) {  
         # Here we have a template file. We need to apply the variables to the template.  
         $outputString = PageBuilder::Build("<<$webData", $varHash, "Html");  
     } else {  
         # Here the user gave us a raw string.  
         $outputString = $webData;  
     }  
     # Check for trace messages.  
     if ($Destination eq "QUEUE") {  
         # We have trace messages, so we want to put them at the end of the body. This  
         # is either at the end of the whole string or at the beginning of the BODY  
         # end-tag.  
         my $pos = length $outputString;  
         if ($outputString =~ m#</body>#gi) {  
             $pos = (pos $outputString) - 7;  
         }  
         substr $outputString, $pos, 0, QTrace('Html');  
     }  
     # Write the output string.  
     print $outputString;  
 }  
   
 =head3 Insure  
   
 C<< Insure($dirName); >>  
   
 Insure a directory is present.  
3324    
3325  =over 4  A sequence of digits.
3326    
3327  =item dirName  =item RETURN
3328    
3329  Name of the directory to check. If it does not exist, it will be created.  Returns the same digits with commas strategically inserted.
3330    
3331  =back  =back
3332    
3333  =cut  =cut
3334    
3335  sub Insure {  sub CommaFormat {
3336      my ($dirName) = @_;      # Get the parameters.
3337      if (! -d $dirName) {      my ($number) = @_;
3338          Trace("Creating $dirName directory.") if T(2);      # Pad the length up to a multiple of three.
3339          eval { mkpath $dirName; };      my $padded = "$number";
3340          if ($@) {      $padded = " " . $padded while length($padded) % 3 != 0;
3341              Confess("Error creating $dirName: $@");      # This is a fancy PERL trick. The parentheses in the SPLIT pattern
3342          }      # cause the delimiters to be included in the output stream. The
3343      }      # GREP removes the empty strings in between the delimiters.
3344        my $retVal = join(",", grep { $_ ne '' } split(/(...)/, $padded));
3345        # Clean out the spaces.
3346        $retVal =~ s/ //g;
3347        # Return the result.
3348        return $retVal;
3349  }  }
3350    
 =head3 ChDir  
3351    
3352  C<< ChDir($dirName); >>  =head3 CompareLists
3353    
3354  Change to the specified directory.      my ($inserted, $deleted) = Tracer::CompareLists(\@newList, \@oldList, $keyIndex);
3355    
3356    Compare two lists of tuples, and return a hash analyzing the differences. The lists
3357    are presumed to be sorted alphabetically by the value in the $keyIndex column.
3358    The return value contains a list of items that are only in the new list
3359    (inserted) and only in the old list (deleted).
3360    
3361  =over 4  =over 4
3362    
3363  =item dirName  =item newList
3364    
3365  Name of the directory to which we want to change.  Reference to a list of new tuples.
3366    
3367    =item oldList
3368    
3369    Reference to a list of old tuples.
3370    
3371    =item keyIndex (optional)
3372    
3373    Index into each tuple of its key field. The default is 0.
3374    
3375    =item RETURN
3376    
3377    Returns a 2-tuple consisting of a reference to the list of items that are only in the new
3378    list (inserted) followed by a reference to the list of items that are only in the old
3379    list (deleted).
3380    
3381  =back  =back
3382    
3383  =cut  =cut
3384    
3385  sub ChDir {  sub CompareLists {
3386      my ($dirName) = @_;      # Get the parameters.
3387      if (! -d $dirName) {      my ($newList, $oldList, $keyIndex) = @_;
3388          Confess("Cannot change to directory $dirName: no such directory.");      if (! defined $keyIndex) {
3389      } else {          $keyIndex = 0;
3390          Trace("Changing to directory $dirName.") if T(4);      }
3391          my $okFlag = chdir $dirName;      # Declare the return variables.
3392          if (! $okFlag) {      my ($inserted, $deleted) = ([], []);
3393              Confess("Error switching to directory $dirName.");      # Loop through the two lists simultaneously.
3394        my ($newI, $oldI) = (0, 0);
3395        my ($newN, $oldN) = (scalar @{$newList}, scalar @{$oldList});
3396        while ($newI < $newN || $oldI < $oldN) {
3397            # Get the current object in each list. Note that if one
3398            # of the lists is past the end, we'll get undef.
3399            my $newItem = $newList->[$newI];
3400            my $oldItem = $oldList->[$oldI];
3401            if (! defined($newItem) || defined($oldItem) && $newItem->[$keyIndex] gt $oldItem->[$keyIndex]) {
3402                # The old item is not in the new list, so mark it deleted.
3403                push @{$deleted}, $oldItem;
3404                $oldI++;
3405            } elsif (! defined($oldItem) || $oldItem->[$keyIndex] gt $newItem->[$keyIndex]) {
3406                # The new item is not in the old list, so mark it inserted.
3407                push @{$inserted}, $newItem;
3408                $newI++;
3409            } else {
3410                # The item is in both lists, so push forward.
3411                $oldI++;
3412                $newI++;
3413          }          }
3414      }      }
3415        # Return the result.
3416        return ($inserted, $deleted);
3417  }  }
3418    
3419  =head3 SendSMS  =head3 GenerateURL
3420    
3421  C<< my $msgID = Tracer::SendSMS($phoneNumber, $msg); >>      my $queryUrl = Tracer::GenerateURL($page, %parameters);
3422    
3423  Send a text message to a phone number using Clickatell. The FIG_Config file must contain the  Generate a GET-style URL for the specified page with the specified parameter
3424  user name, password, and API ID for the relevant account in the hash reference variable  names and values. The values will be URL-escaped automatically. So, for
3425  I<$FIG_Config::phone>, using the keys C<user>, C<password>, and C<api_id>. For  example
 example, if the user name is C<BruceTheHumanPet>, the password is C<silly>, and the API ID  
 is C<2561022>, then the FIG_Config file must contain  
3426    
3427      $phone =  { user => 'BruceTheHumanPet',      Tracer::GenerateURL("form.cgi", type => 1, string => "\"high pass\" or highway")
                 password => 'silly',  
                 api_id => '2561022' };  
3428    
3429  The original purpose of this method was to insure Bruce would be notified immediately when the  would return
 Sprout Load terminates. Care should be taken if you do not wish Bruce to be notified immediately  
 when you call this method.  
3430    
3431  The message ID will be returned if successful, and C<undef> if an error occurs.      form.cgi?type=1;string=%22high%20pass%22%20or%20highway
3432    
3433  =over 4  =over 4
3434    
3435  =item phoneNumber  =item page
3436    
3437  Phone number to receive the message, in international format. A United States phone number  Page URL.
 would be prefixed by "1". A British phone number would be prefixed by "44".  
3438    
3439  =item msg  =item parameters
3440    
3441  Message to send to the specified phone.  Hash mapping parameter names to parameter values.
3442    
3443  =item RETURN  =item RETURN
3444    
3445  Returns the message ID if successful, and C<undef> if the message could not be sent.  Returns a GET-style URL that goes to the specified page and passes in the
3446    specified parameters and values.
3447    
3448  =back  =back
3449    
3450  =cut  =cut
3451    
3452  sub SendSMS {  sub GenerateURL {
3453      # Get the parameters.      # Get the parameters.
3454      my ($phoneNumber, $msg) = @_;      my ($page, %parameters) = @_;
3455      # Declare the return variable. If we do not change it, C<undef> will be returned.      # Prime the return variable with the page URL.
3456      my $retVal;      my $retVal = $page;
3457      # Only proceed if we have phone support.      # Loop through the parameters, creating parameter elements in a list.
3458      if (! defined $FIG_Config::phone) {      my @parmList = map { "$_=" . uri_escape($parameters{$_}) } keys %parameters;
3459          Trace("Phone support not present in FIG_Config.") if T(1);      # If the list is nonempty, tack it on.
3460      } else {      if (@parmList) {
3461          # Get the phone data.          $retVal .= "?" . join(";", @parmList);
         my $parms = $FIG_Config::phone;  
         # Get the Clickatell URL.  
         my $url = "http://api.clickatell.com/http/";  
         # Create the user agent.  
         my $ua = LWP::UserAgent->new;  
         # Request a Clickatell session.  
         my $resp = $ua->post("$url/sendmsg", { user => $parms->{user},  
                                      password => $parms->{password},  
                                      api_id => $parms->{api_id},  
                                      to => $phoneNumber,  
                                      text => $msg});  
         # Check for an error.  
         if (! $resp->is_success) {  
             Trace("Alert failed.") if T(1);  
         } else {  
             # Get the message ID.  
             my $rstring = $resp->content;  
             if ($rstring =~ /^ID:\s+(.*)$/) {  
                 $retVal = $1;  
             } else {  
                 Trace("Phone attempt failed with $rstring") if T(1);  
             }  
         }  
3462      }      }
3463      # Return the result.      # Return the result.
3464      return $retVal;      return $retVal;
3465  }  }
3466    
3467  =head3 CommaFormat  =head3 ApplyURL
3468    
3469  C<< my $formatted = Tracer::CommaFormat($number); >>      Tracer::ApplyURL($table, $target, $url);
3470    
3471  Insert commas into a number.  Run through a two-dimensional table (or more accurately, a list of lists), converting the
3472    I<$target> column to HTML text having a hyperlink to a URL in the I<$url> column. The
3473    URL column will be deleted by this process and the target column will be HTML-escaped.
3474    
3475    This provides a simple way to process the results of a database query into something
3476    displayable by combining a URL with text.
3477    
3478  =over 4  =over 4
3479    
3480  =item number  =item table
3481    
3482  A sequence of digits.  Reference to a list of lists. The elements in the containing list will be updated by
3483    this method.
3484    
3485  =item RETURN  =item target
3486    
3487  Returns the same digits with commas strategically inserted.  The index of the column to be converted into HTML.
3488    
3489    =item url
3490    
3491    The index of the column containing the URL. Note that the URL must have a recognizable
3492    C<http:> at the beginning.
3493    
3494  =back  =back
3495    
3496  =cut  =cut
3497    
3498  sub CommaFormat {  sub ApplyURL {
3499      # Get the parameters.      # Get the parameters.
3500      my ($number) = @_;      my ($table, $target, $url) = @_;
3501      # Pad the length up to a multiple of three.      # Loop through the table.
3502      my $padded = "$number";      for my $row (@{$table}) {
3503      $padded = " " . $padded while length($padded) % 3 != 0;          # Apply the URL to the target cell.
3504      # This is a fancy PERL trick. The parentheses in the SPLIT pattern          $row->[$target] = CombineURL($row->[$target], $row->[$url]);
3505      # cause the delimiters to be included in the output stream. The          # Delete the URL from the row.
3506      # GREP removes the empty strings in between the delimiters.          delete $row->[$url];
3507      my $retVal = join(",", grep { $_ ne '' } split(/(...)/, $padded));      }
     # Clean out the spaces.  
     $retVal =~ s/ //g;  
     # Return the result.  
     return $retVal;  
3508  }  }
 =head3 SetPermissions  
3509    
3510  C<< Tracer::SetPermissions($dirName, $group, $mask, %otherMasks); >>  =head3 CombineURL
3511    
3512  Set the permissions for a directory and all the files and folders inside it.      my $combinedHtml = Tracer::CombineURL($text, $url);
 In addition, the group ownership will be changed to the specified value.  
3513