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revision 1.39, Fri Feb 24 19:45:29 2006 UTC revision 1.101, Thu May 8 18:03:10 2008 UTC
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1  #  # -*- perl -*-
2    ########################################################################
3  # Copyright (c) 2003-2006 University of Chicago and Fellowship  # Copyright (c) 2003-2006 University of Chicago and Fellowship
4  # for Interpretations of Genomes. All Rights Reserved.  # for Interpretations of Genomes. All Rights Reserved.
5  #  #
# Line 13  Line 14 
14  # at info@ci.uchicago.edu or the Fellowship for Interpretation of  # at info@ci.uchicago.edu or the Fellowship for Interpretation of
15  # Genomes at veronika@thefig.info or download a copy from  # Genomes at veronika@thefig.info or download a copy from
16  # http://www.theseed.org/LICENSE.TXT.  # http://www.theseed.org/LICENSE.TXT.
17  #  ########################################################################
18    
19  package Tracer;  package Tracer;
20    
21      require Exporter;      require Exporter;
22      @ISA = ('Exporter');      @ISA = ('Exporter');
23      @EXPORT = qw(Trace T TSetup QTrace Confess Cluck Min Max Assert Open OpenDir TICK StandardSetup ScriptSetup ScriptFinish Insure);      @EXPORT = qw(Trace T TSetup QTrace Confess Cluck Min Max Assert Open OpenDir TICK StandardSetup EmergencyKey ETracing Constrain Insure ChDir Emergency Warn);
24      @EXPORT_OK = qw(GetFile GetOptions Merge MergeOptions ParseCommand ParseRecord UnEscape Escape);      @EXPORT_OK = qw(GetFile GetOptions Merge MergeOptions ParseCommand ParseRecord UnEscape Escape PrintLine PutLine);
25      use strict;      use strict;
26      use Carp qw(longmess croak);      use Carp qw(longmess croak carp);
27      use CGI;      use CGI;
28        use Cwd;
29      use FIG_Config;      use FIG_Config;
30      use PageBuilder;      use PageBuilder;
31      use Digest::MD5;      use Digest::MD5;
32      use File::Basename;      use File::Basename;
33      use File::Path;      use File::Path;
34        use File::stat;
35        use LWP::UserAgent;
36        use Time::HiRes 'gettimeofday';
37        use URI::Escape;
38        use Time::Local;
39        use POSIX qw(strftime);
40        use Time::Zone;
41    
42    
43  =head1 Tracing and Debugging Helpers  =head1 Tracing and Debugging Helpers
44    
45  =head2 Introduction  =head2 Tracing
46    
47  This package provides simple tracing for debugging and reporting purposes. To use it simply call the  This package provides simple tracing for debugging and reporting purposes. To use it simply call the
48  L</TSetup> method to set the options and call L</Trace> to write out trace messages. Each trace  L</TSetup> or L</ETracing> method to set the options and call L</Trace> to write out trace messages.
49  message has a I<trace level> and I<category> associated with it. In addition, the tracing package itself  L</TSetup> and L</ETracing> both establish a I<trace level> and a list of I<categories>. Similarly,
50  has a list of categories and a single trace level set by the B<TSetup> method. Only messages whose trace  each trace message has a I<trace level> and I<category> associated with it. Only messages whose trace
51  level is less than or equal to this package's trace level and whose category is activated will  level is less than or equal to the setup trace level and whose category is activated will
52  be written. Thus, a higher trace level on a message indicates that the message  be written. Thus, a higher trace level on a message indicates that the message
53  is less likely to be seen. A higher trace level passed to B<TSetup> means more trace messages will  is less likely to be seen, while a higher trace level passed to B<TSetup> means more trace messages will
54  appear. To generate a trace message, use the following syntax.  appear.
55    
56    =head3 Putting Trace Messages in Your Code
57    
58  C<< Trace($message) if T(errors => 4); >>  To generate a trace message, use the following syntax.
59    
60        Trace($message) if T(errors => 4);
61    
62  This statement will produce a trace message if the trace level is 4 or more and the C<errors>  This statement will produce a trace message if the trace level is 4 or more and the C<errors>
63  category is active. Note that the special category C<main> is always active, so  category is active. There is a special category C<main> that is always active, so
64    
65  C<< Trace($message) if T(main => 4); >>      Trace($message) if T(main => 4);
66    
67  will trace if the trace level is 4 or more.  will trace if the trace level is 4 or more.
68    
# Line 56  Line 70 
70  following call is made in the B<Sprout> package, it will appear if the C<Sprout> category is  following call is made in the B<Sprout> package, it will appear if the C<Sprout> category is
71  active and the trace level is 2 or more.  active and the trace level is 2 or more.
72    
73  C<< Trace($message) if T(2); >>      Trace($message) if T(2);
74    
75    In scripts, where no package name is available, the category defaults to C<main>.
76    
77    =head3 Custom Tracing
78    
79    Many programs have customized tracing configured using the L</TSetup> method. This is no longer
80    the preferred method, but a knowledge of how custom tracing works can make the more modern
81    L</Emergency Tracing> easier to understand.
82    
83  To set up tracing, you call the L</TSetup> method. The method takes as input a trace level, a list  To set up custom tracing, you call the L</TSetup> method. The method takes as input a trace level,
84  of category names, and a set of options. The trace level and list of category names are  a list of category names, and a destination. The trace level and list of category names are
85  specified as a space-delimited string. Thus  specified as a space-delimited string. Thus
86    
87  C<< TSetup('3 errors Sprout ERDB', 'HTML'); >>      TSetup('3 errors Sprout ERDB', 'TEXT');
88    
89  sets the trace level to 3, activates the C<errors>, C<Sprout>, and C<ERDB> categories, and  sets the trace level to 3, activates the C<errors>, C<Sprout>, and C<ERDB> categories, and
90  specifies that messages should be output as HTML paragraphs.  specifies that messages should be sent to the standard output.
91    
92  To turn on tracing for ALL categories, use an asterisk. The call below sets every category to  To turn on tracing for ALL categories, use an asterisk. The call below sets every category to
93  level 3 and writes the output to the standard error output. This sort of thing might be  level 3 and writes the output to the standard error output. This sort of thing might be
94  useful in a CGI environment.  useful in a CGI environment.
95    
96  C<< TSetup('3 *', 'WARN'); >>      TSetup('3 *', 'WARN');
97    
98  In addition to HTML and file output for trace messages, you can specify that the trace messages  In addition standard error and file output for trace messages, you can specify that the trace messages
99  be queued. The messages can then be retrieved by calling the L</QTrace> method. This approach  be queued. The messages can then be retrieved by calling the L</QTrace> method. This approach
100  is useful if you are building a web page. Instead of having the trace messages interspersed with  is useful if you are building a web page. Instead of having the trace messages interspersed with
101  the page output, they can be gathered together and displayed at the end of the page. This makes  the page output, they can be gathered together and displayed at the end of the page. This makes
102  it easier to debug page formatting problems.  it easier to debug page formatting problems.
103    
104  Finally, you can specify that all trace messages be emitted as warnings.  Finally, you can specify that all trace messages be emitted to a file, or the standard output and
105    a file at the same time. To trace to a file, specify the filename with an output character in front
106    of it.
107    
108        TSetup('4 SQL', ">$fileName");
109    
110    To trace to the standard output and a file at the same time, put a C<+> in front of the angle
111    bracket.
112    
113        TSetup('3 *', "+>$fileName");
114    
115  The flexibility of tracing makes it superior to simple use of directives like C<die> and C<warn>.  The flexibility of tracing makes it superior to simple use of directives like C<die> and C<warn>.
116  Tracer calls can be left in the code with minimal overhead and then turned on only when needed.  Tracer calls can be left in the code with minimal overhead and then turned on only when needed.
117  Thus, debugging information is available and easily retrieved even when the application is  Thus, debugging information is available and easily retrieved even when the application is
118  being used out in the field.  being used out in the field.
119    
120    =head3 Trace Levels
121    
122  There is no hard and fast rule on how to use trace levels. The following is therefore only  There is no hard and fast rule on how to use trace levels. The following is therefore only
123  a suggestion.  a suggestion.
124    
# Line 116  Line 149 
149    
150  =back  =back
151    
152    The format of trace messages is important because some utilities analyze trace files.
153    There are three fields-- the time stamp, the category name, and the text.
154    The time stamp is between square brackets and the category name between angle brackets.
155    After the category name there is a colon (C<:>) followed by the message text.
156    If the square brackets or angle brackets are missing, then the trace management
157    utilities assume that they are encountering a set of pre-formatted lines.
158    
159    Note, however, that this formatting is done automatically by the tracing functions. You
160    only need to know about it if you want to parse a trace file.
161    
162    =head3 Emergency Tracing
163    
164    Sometimes, you need a way for tracing to happen automatically without putting parameters
165    in a form or on the command line. Emergency tracing does this. You invoke emergency tracing
166    from the debug form, which is accessed from the [[DebugConsole]]. Emergency tracing requires
167    that you specify a tracing key. For command-line tools, the key is
168    taken from the C<TRACING> environment variable. For web services, the key is taken from
169    a cookie. Either way, the key tells the tracing facility who you are, so that you control
170    the tracing in your environment without stepping on other users.
171    
172    The key can be anything you want. If you don't have a key, the C<SetPassword> page will
173    generate one for you.
174    
175    You can activate and de-activate emergency tracing from the debugging control panel, as
176    well as display the trace file itself.
177    
178    To enable emergency tracing in your code, call
179    
180        ETracing($cgi)
181    
182    from a web script and
183    
184        ETracing()
185    
186    from a command-line script.
187    
188    The web script will look for the tracing key in the cookies, and the command-line
189    script will look for it in the C<TRACING> environment variable. If you are
190    using the L</StandardSetup> method or a [[WebApplication]], emergency tracing
191    will be configured automatically.
192    
193  =cut  =cut
194    
195  # Declare the configuration variables.  # Declare the configuration variables.
196    
197  my $Destination = "NONE";   # Description of where to send the trace output.  my $Destination = "WARN";   # Description of where to send the trace output.
198  my $TeeFlag = 0;            # TRUE if output is going to a file and to the  my $TeeFlag = 0;            # TRUE if output is going to a file and to the
199                              # standard output                              # standard output
200  my %Categories = ( main => 1 );  my %Categories = ( main => 1 );
201                              # hash of active category names                              # hash of active category names
202    my @LevelNames = qw(error warn notice info detail);
203  my $TraceLevel = 0;         # trace level; a higher trace level produces more  my $TraceLevel = 0;         # trace level; a higher trace level produces more
204                              # messages                              # messages
205  my @Queue = ();             # queued list of trace messages.  my @Queue = ();             # queued list of trace messages.
206  my $LastCategory = "main";  # name of the last category interrogated  my $LastCategory = "main";  # name of the last category interrogated
207    my $LastLevel = 0;          # level of the last test call
208  my $SetupCount = 0;         # number of times TSetup called  my $SetupCount = 0;         # number of times TSetup called
209  my $AllTrace = 0;           # TRUE if we are tracing all categories.  my $AllTrace = 0;           # TRUE if we are tracing all categories.
210    my $SavedCGI;               # CGI object passed to ETracing
211    umask 2;                    # Fix the damn umask so everything is group-writable.
212    
213    =head2 Tracing Methods
214    
215    =head3 Setups
216    
217        my $count = Tracer::Setups();
218    
219    Return the number of times L</TSetup> has been called.
220    
221    This method allows for the creation of conditional tracing setups where, for example, we
222    may want to set up tracing if nobody else has done it before us.
223    
224    =cut
225    
226  =head2 Public Methods  sub Setups {
227        return $SetupCount;
228    }
229    
230  =head3 TSetup  =head3 TSetup
231    
232  C<< TSetup($categoryList, $target); >>      TSetup($categoryList, $target);
233    
234  This method is used to specify the trace options. The options are stored as package data  This method is used to specify the trace options. The options are stored as package data
235  and interrogated by the L</Trace> and L</T> methods.  and interrogated by the L</Trace> and L</T> methods.
# Line 186  Line 279 
279          }          }
280      }      }
281      # Now we need to process the destination information. The most important special      # Now we need to process the destination information. The most important special
282      # cases are the single ">", which requires we clear the file first, and the      # case is when we're writing to a file. This is indicated by ">" (overwrite) and
283      # "+" prefix which indicates a double echo.      # ">>" (append). A leading "+" for either indicates that we are also writing to
284        # the standard output (tee mode).
285      if ($target =~ m/^\+?>>?/) {      if ($target =~ m/^\+?>>?/) {
286          if ($target =~ m/^\+/) {          if ($target =~ m/^\+/) {
287              $TeeFlag = 1;              $TeeFlag = 1;
288              $target = substr($target, 1);              $target = substr($target, 1);
289          }          }
290          if ($target =~ m/^>[^>]/) {          if ($target =~ m/^>[^>]/) {
291                # We need to initialize the file (which clears it).
292              open TRACEFILE, $target;              open TRACEFILE, $target;
293              print TRACEFILE Now() . " Tracing initialized.\n";              print TRACEFILE "[" . Now() . "] [notice] [Tracer] Tracing initialized.\n";
294              close TRACEFILE;              close TRACEFILE;
295                # Set to append mode now that the file has been cleared.
296              $Destination = ">$target";              $Destination = ">$target";
297          } else {          } else {
298              $Destination = $target;              $Destination = $target;
# Line 208  Line 304 
304      $SetupCount++;      $SetupCount++;
305  }  }
306    
307  =head3 StandardSetup  =head3 SetLevel
   
 C<< my ($options, @parameters) = StandardSetup(\@categories, \%options, $parmHelp, @ARGV); >>  
   
 This method performs standard command-line parsing and tracing setup. The return  
 values are a hash of the command-line options and a list of the positional  
 parameters. Tracing is automatically set up and the command-line options are  
 validated.  
   
 This is a complex method that does a lot of grunt work. The parameters can  
 be more easily understood, however, once they are examined individually.  
   
 The I<categories> parameter is the most obtuse. It is a reference to a list of  
 special-purpose tracing categories. Most tracing categories are PERL package  
 names. So, for example, if you wanted to turn on tracing inside the B<Sprout>,  
 B<ERDB>, and B<SproutLoad> packages, you would specify the categories  
308    
309      ["Sprout", "SproutLoad", "ERDB"]      Tracer::SetLevel($newLevel);
310    
311  This would cause trace messages in the specified three packages to appear in  Modify the trace level. A higher trace level will cause more messages to appear.
 the output. There are threer special tracing categories that are automatically  
 handled by this method. In other words, if you used L</TSetup> you would need  
 to include these categories manually, but if you use this method they are turned  
 on automatically.  
312    
313  =over 4  =over 4
314    
315  =item FIG  =item newLevel
   
 Turns on trace messages inside the B<FIG> package.  
   
 =item SQL  
   
 Traces SQL commands and activity.  
   
 =item Tracer  
316    
317  Traces error messages and call stacks.  Proposed new trace level.
318    
319  =back  =back
320    
321  C<SQL> is only turned on if the C<-sql> option is specified in the command line.  =cut
 The trace level is specified using the C<-trace> command-line option. For example,  
 the following command line for C<TransactFeatures> turns on SQL tracing and runs  
 all tracing at level 3.  
322    
323      TransactFeatures -trace=3 -sql register ../xacts IDs.tbl  sub SetLevel {
324        $TraceLevel = $_[0];
325    }
326    
327  Standard tracing is output to the standard output and echoed to the file  =head3 ParseDate
 C<trace>I<$$>C<.log> in the FIG temporary directory, where I<$$> is the  
 process ID. You can also specify the C<user> parameter to put a user ID  
 instead of a process ID in the trace file name. So, for example  
328    
329  The default trace level is 2. To get all messages, specify a trace level of 4.      my $time = Tracer::ParseDate($dateString);
 For a genome-by-genome update, use 3.  
330    
331      TransactFeatures -trace=3 -sql -user=Bruce register ../xacts IDs.tbl  Convert a date into a PERL time number. This method expects a date-like string
332    and parses it into a number. The string must be vaguely date-like or it will
333    return an undefined value. Our requirement is that a month and day be
334    present and that three pieces of the date string (time of day, month and day,
335    year) be separated by likely delimiters, such as spaces, commas, and such-like.
336    
337  would send the trace output to C<traceBruce.log> in the temporary directory.  If a time of day is present, it must be in military time with two digits for
338    everything but the hour.
339    
340  The I<options> parameter is a reference to a hash containing the command-line  The year must be exactly four digits.
 options, their default values, and an explanation of what they mean. Command-line  
 options may be in the form of switches or keywords. In the case of a switch, the  
 option value is 1 if it is specified and 0 if it is not specified. In the case  
 of a keyword, the value is separated from the option name by an equal sign. You  
 can see this last in the command-line example above.  
341    
342  An example at this point would help. Consider, for example, the command-line utility  Additional stuff can be in the string. We presume it's time zones or weekdays or something
343  C<TransactFeatures>. It accepts a list of positional parameters plus the options  equally innocuous. This means, however, that a sufficiently long sentence with date-like
344  C<safe>, C<noAlias>, C<start>, and C<tblFiles>. To start up this command, we execute  parts in it may be interpreted as a date. Hopefully this will not be a problem.
 the following code.  
345    
346      my ($options, @parameters) = Tracer::StandardSetup(["DocUtils"],  It should be guaranteed that this method will parse the output of the L</Now> function.
                         { safe => [0, "use database transactions"],  
                           noAlias => [0, "do not expect aliases in CHANGE transactions"],  
                           start => [' ', "start with this genome"],  
                           tblFiles => [0, "output TBL files containing the corrected IDs"] },  
                         "command transactionDirectory IDfile",  
                       @ARGV);  
347    
348    The parameters are as follows.
349    
350  The call to C<ParseCommand> specifies the default values for the options and  =over 4
 stores the actual options in a hash that is returned as C<$options>. The  
 positional parameters are returned in C<@parameters>.  
351    
352  The following is a sample command line for C<TransactFeatures>.  =item dateString
353    
354      TransactFeatures -trace=2 -noAlias register ../xacts IDs.tbl  The date string to convert.
355    
356  In this case, C<register>, C<../xacts>, and C<IDs.tbl> are the positional  =item RETURN
 parameters, and would find themselves in I<@parameters> after executing the  
 above code fragment. The tracing would be set to level 2, and the categories  
 would be C<FIG>, C<Tracer>, and <DocUtils>. C<FIG> and C<Tracer> are standard,  
 and C<DocUtils> was included because it came in within the first parameter  
 to this method. The I<$options> hash would be  
357    
358      { trace => 2, sql => 0, safe => 0,  Returns a PERL time, that is, a number of seconds since the epoch, or C<undef> if
359        noAlias => 1, start => ' ', tblFiles => 0 }  the date string is invalid. A valid date string must contain a month and day.
360    
361  Use of C<StandardSetup> in this way provides a simple way of performing  =back
 standard tracing setup and command-line parsing. Note that the caller is  
 not even aware of the command-line switches C<-trace> and C<-sql>, which  
 are used by this method to control the tracing. If additional tracing features  
 need to be added in the future, they can be processed by this method without  
 upsetting the command-line utilities.  
362    
363  Finally, if the special option C<-h> is specified, the option names will  =cut
 be traced at level 0 and the program will exit without processing.  
 This provides a limited help capability. For example, if the user enters  
364    
365      TransactFeatures -h  # Universal month conversion table.
366    use constant MONTHS => {    Jan =>  0, January   =>  0, '01' =>  0,  '1' =>  0,
367                                Feb =>  1, February  =>  1, '02' =>  1,  '2' =>  1,
368                                Mar =>  2, March     =>  2, '03' =>  2,  '3' =>  2,
369                                Apr =>  3, April     =>  3, '04' =>  3,  '4' =>  3,
370                                May =>  4, May       =>  4, '05' =>  4,  '5' =>  4,
371                                Jun =>  5, June      =>  5, '06' =>  5,  '6' =>  5,
372                                Jul =>  6, July      =>  6, '07' =>  6,  '7' =>  6,
373                                Aug =>  7, August    =>  7, '08' =>  7,  '8' =>  7,
374                                Sep =>  8, September =>  8, '09' =>  8,  '9' =>  8,
375                                Oct =>  9, October  =>   9, '10' =>  9,
376                                Nov => 10, November =>  10, '11' => 10,
377                                Dec => 11, December =>  11, '12' => 11
378                            };
379    
380  he would see the following output.  sub ParseDate {
381        # Get the parameters.
382        my ($dateString) = @_;
383        # Declare the return variable.
384        my $retVal;
385        # Find the month and day of month. There are two ways that can happen. We check for the
386        # numeric style first. That way, if the user's done something like "Sun 12/22", then we
387        # won't be fooled into thinking the month is Sunday.
388        if ($dateString =~ m#\b(\d{1,2})/(\d{1,2})\b# || $dateString =~ m#\b(\w+)\s(\d{1,2})\b#) {
389            my ($mon, $mday) = (MONTHS->{$1}, $2);
390            # Insist that the month and day are valid.
391            if (defined($mon) && $2 >= 1 && $2 <= 31) {
392                # Find the time.
393                my ($hour, $min, $sec) = (0, 0, 0);
394                if ($dateString =~ /\b(\d{1,2}):(\d{2}):(\d{2})\b/) {
395                    ($hour, $min, $sec) = ($1, $2, $3);
396                }
397                # Find the year.
398                my $year;
399                if ($dateString =~ /\b(\d{4})\b/) {
400                    $year = $1;
401                } else {
402                    # Get the default year, which is this one. Note we must convert it to
403                    # the four-digit value expected by "timelocal".
404                    (undef, undef, undef, undef, undef, $year) = localtime();
405                    $year += 1900;
406                }
407                $retVal = timelocal($sec, $min, $hour, $mday, $mon, $year);
408            }
409        }
410        # Return the result.
411        return $retVal;
412    }
413    
414      TransactFeatures [options] command transactionDirectory IDfile  =head3 LogErrors
         -trace    tracing level (default 2)  
         -sql      trace SQL commands  
         -safe     use database transactions  
         -noAlias  do not expect aliases in CHANGE transactions  
         -start    start with this genome  
         -tblFiles output TBL files containing the corrected IDs  
415    
416  The parameters to this method are as follows.      Tracer::LogErrors($fileName);
417    
418    Route the standard error output to a log file.
419    
420  =over 4  =over 4
421    
422  =item categories  =item fileName
423    
424  Reference to a list of tracing category names. These should be names of  Name of the file to receive the error output.
 packages whose internal workings will need to be debugged to get the  
 command working.  
425    
426  =item options  =back
427    
428  Reference to a hash containing the legal options for the current command mapped  =cut
 to their default values and descriptions. The user can override the defaults  
 by specifying the options as command-line switches prefixed by a hyphen.  
 Tracing-related options may be added to this hash. If the C<-h> option is  
 specified on the command line, the option descriptions will be used to  
 explain the options.  
429    
430  =item parmHelp  sub LogErrors {
431        # Get the file name.
432        my ($fileName) = @_;
433        # Open the file as the standard error output.
434        open STDERR, '>', $fileName;
435    }
436    
437  A string that vaguely describes the positional parameters. This is used  =head3 Trace
 if the user specifies the C<-h> option.  
438    
439  =item ARGV      Trace($message);
440    
441  List of command line parameters, including the option switches, which must  Write a trace message to the target location specified in L</TSetup>. If there has not been
442  precede the positional parameters and be prefixed by a hyphen.  any prior call to B<TSetup>.
443    
444  =item RETURN  =over 4
445    
446  Returns a list. The first element of the list is the reference to a hash that  =item message
447  maps the command-line option switches to their values. These will either be the  
448  default values or overrides specified on the command line. The remaining  Message to write.
 elements of the list are the position parameters, in order.  
449    
450  =back  =back
451    
452  =cut  =cut
453    
454  sub StandardSetup {  sub Trace {
455      # Get the parameters.      # Get the parameters.
456      my ($categories, $options, $parmHelp, @argv) = @_;      my ($message) = @_;
457      # Add the tracing options.      # Strip off any line terminators at the end of the message. We will add
458      $options->{trace} = [2, "tracing level"];      # new-line stuff ourselves.
459      $options->{sql} = [0, "turn on SQL tracing"];      my $stripped = Strip($message);
460      $options->{h} = [0, "display command-line options"];      # Compute the caller information.
461      $options->{user} = [$$, "trace log file name suffix"];      my ($callPackage, $callFile, $callLine) = caller();
462      # Create a parsing hash from the options hash. The parsing hash      my $callFileTitle = basename($callFile);
463      # contains the default values rather than the default value      # Check the caller.
464      # and the description. While we're at it, we'll memorize the      my $callerInfo = ($callFileTitle ne "Tracer.pm" ? " [$callFileTitle $callLine]" : "");
465      # length of the longest option name.      # Get the timestamp.
466      my $longestName = 0;      my $timeStamp = Now();
467      my %parseOptions = ();      # Build the prefix.
468      for my $key (keys %{$options}) {      my $level = $LevelNames[$LastLevel] || "($LastLevel)";
469          if (length $key > $longestName) {      my $prefix = "[$timeStamp] [$level] [$LastCategory]$callerInfo";
470              $longestName = length $key;      # Format the message.
471          }      my $formatted = "$prefix $stripped";
472          $parseOptions{$key} = $options->{$key}->[0];      # Process according to the destination.
473      }      if ($Destination eq "TEXT") {
474      # Parse the command line.          # Write the message to the standard output.
475      my ($retOptions, @retParameters) = ParseCommand(\%parseOptions, @argv);          print "$formatted\n";
476      # Now we want to set up tracing. First, we need to know if SQL is to      } elsif ($Destination eq "ERROR") {
477      # be traced.          # Write the message to the error output. Here, we want our prefix fields.
478      my @cats = @{$categories};          print STDERR "$formatted\n";
479      if ($retOptions->{sql}) {      } elsif ($Destination eq "WARN") {
480          push @cats, "SQL";          # Emit the message to the standard error output. It is presumed that the
481      }          # error logger will add its own prefix fields, the notable exception being
482      # Add the default categories.          # the caller info.
483      push @cats, "Tracer", "FIG";          print STDERR "$callerInfo$stripped\n";
484      # Next, we create the category string by prefixing the trace level      } elsif ($Destination eq "QUEUE") {
485      # and joining the categories.          # Push the message into the queue.
486      my $cats = join(" ", $parseOptions{trace}, @cats);          push @Queue, "$formatted";
487      # Now set up the tracing.      } elsif ($Destination eq "HTML") {
488      my $suffix = $retOptions->{user};          # Convert the message to HTML and write it to the standard output.
489      TSetup($cats, "+>$FIG_Config::temp/trace$suffix.log");          my $escapedMessage = CGI::escapeHTML($stripped);
490      # Check for the "h" option. If it is specified, dump the command-line          print "<p>$timeStamp $LastCategory $LastLevel: $escapedMessage</p>\n";
491      # options and exit the program.      } elsif ($Destination =~ m/^>>/) {
492      if ($retOptions->{h}) {          # Write the trace message to an output file.
493          $0 =~ m#[/\\](\w+)(\.pl)?$#i;          open(TRACING, $Destination) || die "Tracing open for \"$Destination\" failed: $!";
494          Trace("$1 [options] $parmHelp") if T(0);          print TRACING "$formatted\n";
495          for my $key (sort keys %{$options}) {          close TRACING;
496              my $name = Pad($key, $longestName, 0, ' ');          # If the Tee flag is on, echo it to the standard output.
497              my $desc = $options->{$key}->[1];          if ($TeeFlag) {
498              if ($options->{$key}->[0]) {              print "$formatted\n";
                 $desc .= " (default " . $options->{$key}->[0] . ")";  
             }  
             Trace("  $name $desc") if T(0);  
499          }          }
         exit(0);  
500      }      }
     # Return the parsed parameters.  
     return ($retOptions, @retParameters);  
501  }  }
502    
503  =head3 Setups  =head3 T
504    
505  C<< my $count = Tracer::Setups(); >>      my $switch = T($category, $traceLevel);
506    
507  Return the number of times L</TSetup> has been called.      or
508    
509  This method allows for the creation of conditional tracing setups where, for example, we      my $switch = T($traceLevel);
 may want to set up tracing if nobody else has done it before us.  
510    
511  =cut  Return TRUE if the trace level is at or above a specified value and the specified category
512    is active, else FALSE. If no category is specified, the caller's package name is used.
513    
514  sub Setups {  =over 4
     return $SetupCount;  
 }  
515    
516  =head3 Open  =item category
517    
518    Category to which the message belongs. If not specified, the caller's package name is
519    used.
520    
521    =item traceLevel
522    
523    Relevant tracing level.
524    
525    =item RETURN
526    
527    TRUE if a message at the specified trace level would appear in the trace, else FALSE.
528    
529    =back
530    
531    =cut
532    
533    sub T {
534        # Declare the return variable.
535        my $retVal = 0;
536        # Only proceed if tracing is turned on.
537        if ($Destination ne "NONE") {
538            # Get the parameters.
539            my ($category, $traceLevel) = @_;
540            if (!defined $traceLevel) {
541                # Here we have no category, so we need to get the calling package.
542                # The calling package is normally the first parameter. If it is
543                # omitted, the first parameter will be the tracelevel. So, the
544                # first thing we do is shift the so-called category into the
545                # $traceLevel variable where it belongs.
546                $traceLevel = $category;
547                my ($package, $fileName, $line) = caller;
548                # If there is no calling package, we default to "main".
549                if (!$package) {
550                    $category = "main";
551                } else {
552                    my @cats = split /::/, $package;
553                    $category = $cats[$#cats];
554                }
555            }
556            # Save the category name and level.
557            $LastCategory = $category;
558            $LastLevel = $traceLevel;
559            # Convert it to lower case before we hash it.
560            $category = lc $category;
561            # Validate the trace level.
562            if (ref $traceLevel) {
563                Confess("Bad trace level.");
564            } elsif (ref $TraceLevel) {
565                Confess("Bad trace config.");
566            }
567            # Make the check. Note that level 0 shows even if the category is turned off.
568            $retVal = ($traceLevel <= $TraceLevel && ($traceLevel == 0 || $AllTrace || exists $Categories{$category}));
569        }
570        # Return the computed result.
571        return $retVal;
572    }
573    
574    =head3 QTrace
575    
576        my $data = QTrace($format);
577    
578    Return the queued trace data in the specified format.
579    
580    =over 4
581    
582    =item format
583    
584    C<html> to format the data as an HTML list, C<text> to format it as straight text.
585    
586    =back
587    
588    =cut
589    
590    sub QTrace {
591        # Get the parameter.
592        my ($format) = @_;
593        # Create the return variable.
594        my $retVal = "";
595        # Only proceed if there is an actual queue.
596        if (@Queue) {
597            # Process according to the format.
598            if ($format =~ m/^HTML$/i) {
599                # Convert the queue into an HTML list.
600                $retVal = "<ul>\n";
601                for my $line (@Queue) {
602                    my $escapedLine = CGI::escapeHTML($line);
603                    $retVal .= "<li>$escapedLine</li>\n";
604                }
605                $retVal .= "</ul>\n";
606            } elsif ($format =~ m/^TEXT$/i) {
607                # Convert the queue into a list of text lines.
608                $retVal = join("\n", @Queue) . "\n";
609            }
610            # Clear the queue.
611            @Queue = ();
612        }
613        # Return the formatted list.
614        return $retVal;
615    }
616    
617    =head3 Confess
618    
619        Confess($message);
620    
621    Trace the call stack and abort the program with the specified message. When used with
622    the OR operator and the L</Assert> method, B<Confess> can function as a debugging assert.
623    So, for example
624    
625        Assert($recNum >= 0) || Confess("Invalid record number $recNum.");
626    
627    Will abort the program with a stack trace if the value of C<$recNum> is negative.
628    
629    =over 4
630    
631    =item message
632    
633    Message to include in the trace.
634    
635    =back
636    
637    =cut
638    
639    sub Confess {
640        # Get the parameters.
641        my ($message) = @_;
642        # Set up the category and level.
643        $LastCategory = "(confess)";
644        $LastLevel = 0;
645        if (! defined($FIG_Config::no_tool_hdr)) {
646            # Here we have a tool header. Display its length so that the user can adjust the line numbers.
647            my $toolHeaderFile = "$FIG_Config::fig_disk/dist/releases/current/$FIG_Config::arch/tool_hdr";
648            # Only proceed if the tool header file is actually present.
649            if (-f $toolHeaderFile) {
650                my $fh;
651                if (open $fh, "<$toolHeaderFile") {
652                    my @lines = <$fh>;
653                    Trace("Tool header has " . scalar(@lines) . " lines.");
654                }
655            }
656        }
657        # Trace the call stack.
658        Cluck($message);
659        # Abort the program.
660        croak(">>> $message");
661    }
662    
663    =head3 Warn
664    
665        Warn($message);
666    
667    This method traces an important message. If an RSS feed is configured
668    (via I<FIG_Config::error_feed>) and the tracing destination is C<WARN>,
669    then the message will be echoed to the feed. In general, a tracing
670    destination of C<WARN> indicates that the caller is running as a web
671    service in a production environment; however, this is not a requirement.
672    
673    The L</Cluck> method calls this one for its final message. Since
674    L</Confess> calls L</Cluck>, this means that any error which is caught
675    and confessed will put something in the feed. This insures that someone
676    will be alerted relatively quickly when a failure occurs.
677    
678    =over 4
679    
680    =item message
681    
682    Message to be traced.
683    
684    =back
685    
686    =cut
687    
688    sub Warn {
689        # Get the parameters.
690        my ($message) = @_;
691        # Trace the message.
692        Trace($message);
693        # An error here would be disastrous. Note, however, that we aren't too worried
694        # about losing events. The error log is always available for the occasions where
695        # we mess up.
696        eval {
697            # Do we need to put this in the RSS feed?
698            if ($FIG_Config::error_feed && $Destination eq 'WARN') {
699                # Yes. We now need to compute the date, the link, and the title.
700                # First, the date, in a very specific format.
701                my $date = strftime("%a, %02e %b %H:%M:%S %Y ", localtime) .
702                    (tz_local_offset() / 30);
703                # Environment data goes in here.
704                my $environment;
705                # HTML-escape the message and remove excess space.
706                my $title = CGI::escapeHTML($message);
707                $title =~ s/\s+/ /gs;
708                # Compute the title from the message. If it's too long, we have to
709                # split it up.
710                if (length $title > 60) {
711                    $title = substr($title, 0, 50) . "...";
712                }
713                # We'll put the link in here.
714                my $link;
715                # If we have a CGI object, then this is a web error. Otherwise, it's
716                # command-line.
717                if (defined $SavedCGI) {
718                    # We're in a web service. The environment is the user's IP, and the link
719                    # is the URL that got us here.
720                    my $key = $ENV{HTTP_X_FORWARDED_FOR} || $ENV{REMOTE_ADDR};
721                    $environment = "Event Reported at IP address $key.";
722                    $link = $SavedCGI->url(-full => 1, -query => 1);
723                    # We need the user agent string and (if available) the referrer.
724                    $environment .= "User Agent $ENV{HTTP_USER_AGENT}";
725                    if ($ENV{HTTP_REFERER}) {
726                        $environment .= " referred from $ENV{HTTP_REFERER}"
727                    }
728                    # Close off the sentence.
729                    $environment .= ". ";
730                } else {
731                    # No CGI object, so we're a command-line tool. Use the tracing
732                    # key and the PID as the user identifier, and add the command.
733                    my $key = EmergencyKey();
734                    $environment = "Event Reported by $key Process $$. Command $ENV{_}.";
735                    # Set the link to the development NMPDR. There is really no good
736                    # choice here.
737                    $link = "http://$FIG_Config::dev_server";
738                }
739                # Build a GUID. We use the current time, the title, and the process ID,
740                # then digest the result.
741                my $guid = Digest::MD5::md5_base64(gettimeofday(), $title, $$);
742                # Finally, the description. This is a stack trace plus various environmental stuff.
743                # We have a goofy thing here in that we need to HTML-escape some sections of the description
744                # twice. They will be unescaped once when processed by the RSS reader. First, the stack
745                # trace.
746                my $stackTrace = "";
747                my @trace = LongMess();
748                # Only proceed if we got something back.
749                if (scalar(@trace) > 0) {
750                    $trace[0] =~ s/Tracer::Warn.+?called/Event occurred/;
751                    $stackTrace = "Stack trace:<pre>" . join("\n", @trace, "</pre>");
752                }
753                my $basicDescription = CGI::escapeHTML($message) . "<br /><br />" .
754                        CGI::escapeHTML($environment) . $stackTrace;
755                # Okay, we have all the pieces. Create a hash of the new event.
756                my $newItem = { title => $title,
757                                description => CGI::escapeHTML($basicDescription),
758                                link => $link,
759                                category => $LastCategory,
760                                pubDate => $date,
761                                guid => $guid,
762                               };
763                # We need XML capability for this.
764                require XML::Simple;
765                # The RSS document goes in here.
766                my $rss;
767                # Get the name of the RSS file. It's in the FIG temporary directory.
768                my $fileName = "$FIG_Config::temp/$FIG_Config::error_feed";
769                # Does it exist?
770                if (-s $fileName) {
771                    # Slurp it in.
772                    $rss = XML::Simple::XMLin($fileName, ForceArray => ['item']);
773                } else {
774                    my $size = -s $fileName;
775                    # Create an empty channel.
776                    $rss = {
777                        channel => {
778                            title => 'NMPDR Warning Feed',
779                            link => "$FIG_Config::temp_url/$FIG_Config::error_feed",
780                            description => "Important messages regarding the status of the NMPDR.",
781                            generator => "NMPDR Trace Facility",
782                            docs => "http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss",
783                            item => []
784                        },
785                    };
786                }
787                # Get the channel object.
788                my $channel = $rss->{channel};
789                # Update the last-build date.
790                $channel->{lastBuildDate} = $date;
791                # Get the item array.
792                my $items = $channel->{item};
793                # Insure it has only 100 entries.
794                while (scalar @{$items} > 100) {
795                    pop @{$items};
796                }
797                # Add our new item at the front.
798                unshift @{$items}, $newItem;
799                # Replace the file.
800                my $xml = XML::Simple::XMLout($rss, NoAttr => 1, RootName => 'rss version="2.0"', XmlDecl => '<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>',
801                                              NoEscape => 1);
802                # We don't use Open here because we can't afford an error.
803                if (open XMLOUT, ">$fileName") {
804                    print XMLOUT $xml;
805                    close XMLOUT;
806                }
807            }
808        };
809        # There's no "if ($@)" here, because putting an error message in the log
810        # saying that we missed putting an error message in the feed of messages
811        # in the log is not going to help anybody.
812    }
813    
814    =head3 Assert
815    
816        Assert($condition1, $condition2, ... $conditionN);
817    
818    Return TRUE if all the conditions are true. This method can be used in conjunction with
819    the OR operator and the L</Confess> method as a debugging assert.
820    So, for example
821    
822        Assert($recNum >= 0) || Confess("Invalid record number $recNum.");
823    
824    Will abort the program with a stack trace if the value of C<$recNum> is negative.
825    
826    =cut
827    sub Assert {
828        my $retVal = 1;
829        LOOP: for my $condition (@_) {
830            if (! $condition) {
831                $retVal = 0;
832                last LOOP;
833            }
834        }
835        return $retVal;
836    }
837    
838    =head3 Cluck
839    
840        Cluck($message);
841    
842    Trace the call stack. Note that for best results, you should qualify the call with a
843    trace condition. For example,
844    
845        Cluck("Starting record parse.") if T(3);
846    
847    will only trace the stack if the trace level for the package is 3 or more.
848    
849    =over 4
850    
851    =item message
852    
853    Message to include in the trace.
854    
855    =back
856    
857    =cut
858    
859    sub Cluck {
860        # Get the parameters.
861        my ($message) = @_;
862        # Trace what's happening.
863        Trace("Stack trace for event: $message");
864        # Get the stack trace.
865        my @trace = LongMess();
866        # Convert the trace to a series of messages.
867        for my $line (@trace) {
868            # Replace the tab at the beginning with spaces.
869            $line =~ s/^\t/    /;
870            # Trace the line.
871            Trace($line);
872        }
873        # Issue a warning. This displays the event message and inserts it into the RSS error feed.
874        Warn($message);
875    }
876    
877    =head3 LongMess
878    
879        my @lines = Tracer::LongMess();
880    
881    Return a stack trace with all tracing methods removed. The return will be in the form of a list
882    of message strings.
883    
884    =cut
885    
886    sub LongMess {
887        # Declare the return variable.
888        my @retVal = ();
889        my $confession = longmess("");
890        for my $line (split /\s*\n/, $confession) {
891            unless ($line =~ /Tracer\.pm/) {
892                # Here we have a line worth keeping. Push it onto the result list.
893                push @retVal, $line;
894            }
895        }
896        # Return the result.
897        return @retVal;
898    }
899    
900    =head3 ScriptSetup (deprecated)
901    
902        my ($cgi, $varHash) = ScriptSetup($noTrace);
903    
904    Perform standard tracing and debugging setup for scripts. The value returned is
905    the CGI object followed by a pre-built variable hash. At the end of the script,
906    the client should call L</ScriptFinish> to output the web page.
907    
908    This method calls L</ETracing> to configure tracing, which allows the tracing
909    to be configured via the emergency tracing form on the debugging control panel.
910    Tracing will then be turned on automatically for all programs that use the L</ETracing>
911    method, which includes every program that uses this method or L</StandardSetup>.
912    
913    =over 4
914    
915    =item noTrace (optional)
916    
917    If specified, tracing will be suppressed. This is useful if the script wants to set up
918    tracing manually.
919    
920    =item RETURN
921    
922    Returns a two-element list consisting of a CGI query object and a variable hash for
923    the output page.
924    
925    =back
926    
927    =cut
928    
929    sub ScriptSetup {
930        # Get the parameters.
931        my ($noTrace) = @_;
932        # Get the CGI query object.
933        my $cgi = CGI->new();
934        # Set up tracing if it's not suppressed.
935        ETracing($cgi) unless $noTrace;
936        # Create the variable hash.
937        my $varHash = { results => '' };
938        # Return the query object and variable hash.
939        return ($cgi, $varHash);
940    }
941    
942    =head3 ETracing
943    
944        ETracing($parameter);
945    
946    Set up emergency tracing. Emergency tracing is tracing that is turned
947    on automatically for any program that calls this method. The emergency
948    tracing parameters are stored in a a file identified by a tracing key.
949    If this method is called with a CGI object, then the tracing key is
950    taken from a cookie. If it is called with no parameters, then the tracing
951    key is taken from an environment variable. If it is called with a string,
952    the tracing key is that string.
953    
954    =over 4
955    
956    =item parameter
957    
958    A parameter from which the tracing key is computed. If it is a scalar,
959    that scalar is used as the tracing key. If it is a CGI object, the
960    tracing key is taken from the C<IP> cookie. If it is omitted, the
961    tracing key is taken from the C<TRACING> environment variable. If it
962    is a CGI object and emergency tracing is not on, the C<Trace> and
963    C<TF> parameters will be used to determine the type of tracing.
964    
965    =back
966    
967    =cut
968    
969    sub ETracing {
970        # Get the parameter.
971        my ($parameter) = @_;
972        # Check for CGI mode.
973        if (defined $parameter && ref $parameter eq 'CGI') {
974            $SavedCGI = $parameter;
975        } else {
976            $SavedCGI = undef;
977        }
978        # Default to no tracing except errors.
979        my ($tracing, $dest) = ("0", "WARN");
980        # Check for emergency tracing.
981        my $tkey = EmergencyKey($parameter);
982        my $emergencyFile = EmergencyFileName($tkey);
983        if (-e $emergencyFile) {
984            # We have the file. Read in the data.
985            my @tracing = GetFile($emergencyFile);
986            # Pull off the time limit.
987            my $expire = shift @tracing;
988            # Convert it to seconds.
989            $expire *= 3600;
990            # Check the file data.
991            my $stat = stat($emergencyFile);
992            my ($now) = gettimeofday;
993            if ($now - $stat->mtime > $expire) {
994                # Delete the expired file.
995                unlink $emergencyFile;
996            } else {
997                # Emergency tracing is on. Pull off the destination and
998                # the trace level;
999                $dest = shift @tracing;
1000                my $level = shift @tracing;
1001                # Convert the destination to a real tracing destination.
1002                # temp directory.
1003                $dest = EmergencyTracingDest($tkey, $dest);
1004                # Insure Tracer is specified.
1005                my %moduleHash = map { $_ => 1 } @tracing;
1006                $moduleHash{Tracer} = 1;
1007                # Set the trace parameter.
1008                $tracing = join(" ", $level, sort keys %moduleHash);
1009            }
1010        } elsif (defined $SavedCGI) {
1011            # There's no emergency tracing, but we have a CGI object, so check
1012            # for tracing from the form parameters.
1013            if ($SavedCGI->param('Trace')) {
1014                # Here the user has requested tracing via a form.
1015                $dest = ($SavedCGI->param('TF') ? ">$FIG_Config::temp/Trace$$.log" : "QUEUE");
1016                $tracing = $SavedCGI->param('Trace') . " Tracer";
1017            }
1018        }
1019        # Setup the tracing we've determined from all the stuff above.
1020        TSetup($tracing, $dest);
1021        # Check to see if we're a web script.
1022        if (defined $SavedCGI) {
1023            # Yes we are. Trace the form and environment data.
1024            TraceParms($SavedCGI);
1025            # Check for RAW mode. In raw mode, we print a fake header so that we see everything
1026            # emitted by the script in its raw form.
1027            if (T(Raw => 3)) {
1028                print CGI::header(-type => 'text/plain', -tracing => 'Raw');
1029            }
1030        }
1031    }
1032    
1033    =head3 EmergencyFileName
1034    
1035        my $fileName = Tracer::EmergencyFileName($tkey);
1036    
1037    Return the emergency tracing file name. This is the file that specifies
1038    the tracing information.
1039    
1040    =over 4
1041    
1042    =item tkey
1043    
1044    Tracing key for the current program.
1045    
1046    =item RETURN
1047    
1048    Returns the name of the file to contain the emergency tracing information.
1049    
1050    =back
1051    
1052    =cut
1053    
1054    sub EmergencyFileName {
1055        # Get the parameters.
1056        my ($tkey) = @_;
1057        # Compute the emergency tracing file name.
1058        return "$FIG_Config::temp/Emergency$tkey.txt";
1059    }
1060    
1061    =head3 EmergencyFileTarget
1062    
1063        my $fileName = Tracer::EmergencyFileTarget($tkey);
1064    
1065    Return the emergency tracing target file name. This is the file that receives
1066    the tracing output for file-based tracing.
1067    
1068    =over 4
1069    
1070    =item tkey
1071    
1072    Tracing key for the current program.
1073    
1074    =item RETURN
1075    
1076    Returns the name of the file to contain the trace output.
1077    
1078    =back
1079    
1080    =cut
1081    
1082    sub EmergencyFileTarget {
1083        # Get the parameters.
1084        my ($tkey) = @_;
1085        # Compute the emergency tracing file name.
1086        return "$FIG_Config::temp/trace$tkey.log";
1087    }
1088    
1089    =head3 EmergencyTracingDest
1090    
1091        my $dest = Tracer::EmergencyTracingDest($tkey, $myDest);
1092    
1093    This method converts an emergency tracing destination to a real
1094    tracing destination. The main difference is that if the
1095    destination is C<FILE> or C<APPEND>, we convert it to file
1096    output. If the destination is C<DUAL>, we convert it to file
1097    and standard output.
1098    
1099    =over 4
1100    
1101    =item tkey
1102    
1103    Tracing key for this environment.
1104    
1105    =item myDest
1106    
1107    Destination from the emergency tracing file.
1108    
1109    =item RETURN
1110    
1111    Returns a destination that can be passed into L</TSetup>.
1112    
1113    =back
1114    
1115    =cut
1116    
1117    sub EmergencyTracingDest {
1118        # Get the parameters.
1119        my ($tkey, $myDest) = @_;
1120        # Declare the return variable.
1121        my $retVal = $myDest;
1122        # Process according to the destination value.
1123        if ($myDest eq 'FILE') {
1124            $retVal = ">" . EmergencyFileTarget($tkey);
1125        } elsif ($myDest eq 'APPEND') {
1126            $retVal = ">>" . EmergencyFileTarget($tkey);
1127        } elsif ($myDest eq 'DUAL') {
1128            $retVal = "+>" . EmergencyFileTarget($tkey);
1129        } elsif ($myDest eq 'WARN') {
1130            $retVal = "WARN";
1131        }
1132        # Return the result.
1133        return $retVal;
1134    }
1135    
1136    =head3 Emergency
1137    
1138        Emergency($key, $hours, $dest, $level, @modules);
1139    
1140    Turn on emergency tracing. This method is normally invoked over the web from
1141    a debugging console, but it can also be called by the C<trace.pl> script.
1142    The caller specifies the duration of the emergency in hours, the desired tracing
1143    destination, the trace level, and a list of the trace modules to activate.
1144    For the length of the duration, when a program in an environment with the
1145    specified tracing key active invokes a Sprout CGI script, tracing will be
1146    turned on automatically. See L</TSetup> for more about tracing setup and
1147    L</ETracing> for more about emergency tracing.
1148    
1149    =over 4
1150    
1151    =item tkey
1152    
1153    The tracing key. This is used to identify the control file and the trace file.
1154    
1155    =item hours
1156    
1157    Number of hours to keep emergency tracing alive.
1158    
1159    =item dest
1160    
1161    Tracing destination. If no path information is specified for a file
1162    destination, it is put in the FIG temporary directory.
1163    
1164    =item level
1165    
1166    Tracing level. A higher level means more trace messages.
1167    
1168    =item modules
1169    
1170    A list of the tracing modules to activate.
1171    
1172    =back
1173    
1174    =cut
1175    
1176    sub Emergency {
1177        # Get the parameters.
1178        my ($tkey, $hours, $dest, $level, @modules) = @_;
1179        # Create the emergency file.
1180        my $specFile = EmergencyFileName($tkey);
1181        my $outHandle = Open(undef, ">$specFile");
1182        print $outHandle join("\n", $hours, $dest, $level, @modules, "");
1183    }
1184    
1185    =head3 EmergencyKey
1186    
1187        my $tkey = EmergencyKey($parameter);
1188    
1189    Return the Key to be used for emergency tracing. This could be an IP address,
1190     a session ID, or a user name, depending on the environment.
1191    
1192    =over 4
1193    
1194    =item parameter
1195    
1196    Parameter defining the method for finding the tracing key. If it is a scalar,
1197    then it is presumed to be the tracing key itself. If it is a CGI object, then
1198    the tracing key is taken from the C<IP> cookie. Otherwise, the tracing key is
1199    taken from the C<TRACING> environment variable.
1200    
1201    =item RETURN
1202    
1203    Returns the key to be used for labels in emergency tracing.
1204    
1205    =back
1206    
1207    =cut
1208    
1209    sub EmergencyKey {
1210        # Get the parameters.
1211        my ($parameter) = @_;
1212        # Declare the return variable.
1213        my $retVal;
1214        # Determine the parameter type.
1215        if (! defined $parameter) {
1216            # Here we're supposed to check the environment. If that fails, we
1217            # get the effective login ID.
1218            $retVal = $ENV{TRACING} || scalar getpwuid($<);
1219        } else {
1220            my $ptype = ref $parameter;
1221            if ($ptype eq 'CGI') {
1222                # Here we were invoked from a web page. Look for a cookie.
1223                $retVal = $parameter->cookie('IP');
1224            } elsif (! $ptype) {
1225                # Here the key was passed in.
1226                $retVal = $parameter;
1227            }
1228        }
1229        # If no luck finding a key, use the PID.
1230        if (! defined $retVal) {
1231            $retVal = $$;
1232        }
1233        # Return the result.
1234        return $retVal;
1235    }
1236    
1237    
1238    =head3 TraceParms
1239    
1240        Tracer::TraceParms($cgi);
1241    
1242    Trace the CGI parameters at trace level CGI => 3 and the environment variables
1243    at level CGI => 4. A self-referencing URL is traced at level CGI => 2.
1244    
1245    =over 4
1246    
1247    =item cgi
1248    
1249    CGI query object containing the parameters to trace.
1250    
1251    =back
1252    
1253    =cut
1254    
1255    sub TraceParms {
1256        # Get the parameters.
1257        my ($cgi) = @_;
1258        if (T(CGI => 2)) {
1259            # Here we trace the GET-style URL for the script.
1260            Trace("[URL] " . $cgi->url(-relative => 1, -query => 1));
1261        }
1262        if (T(CGI => 3)) {
1263            # Here we want to trace the parameter data.
1264            my @names = $cgi->param;
1265            for my $parmName (sort @names) {
1266                # Note we skip the Trace parameters, which are for our use only.
1267                if ($parmName ne 'Trace' && $parmName ne 'TF') {
1268                    my @values = $cgi->param($parmName);
1269                    Trace("[CGI] $parmName = " . join(", ", @values));
1270                }
1271            }
1272            # Display the request method.
1273            my $method = $cgi->request_method();
1274            Trace("Method: $method");
1275        }
1276        if (T(CGI => 4)) {
1277            # Here we want the environment data too.
1278            for my $envName (sort keys %ENV) {
1279                Trace("[ENV] $envName = $ENV{$envName}");
1280            }
1281        }
1282    }
1283    
1284    =head3 TraceImages
1285    
1286        Tracer::TraceImages($htmlString);
1287    
1288    Trace information about all of an html document's images. The tracing
1289    will be for type "IMG" at level 3. The image's source string
1290    will be displayed. This is generally either the URL of the image or
1291    raw data for the image itself. If the source is too long, only the first 300
1292    characters will be shown at trace level 3. The entire source will be shown,
1293    however, at trace level 4. This method is not very smart, and might catch
1294    Javascript code, but it is still useful when debugging the arcane
1295    behavior of images in multiple browser environments.
1296    
1297    =over 4
1298    
1299    =item htmlString
1300    
1301    HTML text for an outgoing web page.
1302    
1303    =back
1304    
1305    =cut
1306    
1307    sub TraceImages {
1308        # Only proceed if we're at the proper trace level.
1309        if (T(IMG => 3)) {
1310            # For performance reasons we're manipulating $_[0] instead of retrieving the string
1311            # into a variable called "$htmlString". This is because we expect html strings to be
1312            # long, and don't want to copy them any more than we have to.
1313            Trace(length($_[0]) . " characters in web page.");
1314            # Loop through the HTML, culling image tags.
1315            while ($_[0] =~ /<img\s+[^>]+?src="([^"]+)"/sgi) {
1316                # Extract the source string and determine whether or not it's too long.
1317                my $srcString = $1;
1318                my $pos = pos($_[0]) - length($srcString);
1319                my $excess = length($srcString) - 300;
1320                # We'll put the display string in here.
1321                my $srcDisplay = $srcString;
1322                # If it's a data string, split it at the comma.
1323                $srcDisplay =~ s/^(data[^,]+,)/$1\n/;
1324                # If there's no excess or we're at trace level 4, we're done. At level 3 with
1325                # a long string, however, we only show the first 300 characters.
1326                if ($excess > 0 && ! T(IMG => 4)) {
1327                    $srcDisplay = substr($srcDisplay,0,300) . "\nplus $excess characters.";
1328                }
1329                # Output the trace message.
1330                Trace("Image tag at position $pos:\n$srcDisplay");
1331            }
1332        }
1333    }
1334    
1335    
1336    =head3 ScriptFinish (deprecated)
1337    
1338        ScriptFinish($webData, $varHash);
1339    
1340    Output a web page at the end of a script. Either the string to be output or the
1341    name of a template file can be specified. If the second parameter is omitted,
1342    it is assumed we have a string to be output; otherwise, it is assumed we have the
1343    name of a template file. The template should have the variable C<DebugData>
1344    specified in any form that invokes a standard script. If debugging mode is turned
1345    on, a form field will be put in that allows the user to enter tracing data.
1346    Trace messages will be placed immediately before the terminal C<BODY> tag in
1347    the output, formatted as a list.
1348    
1349    A typical standard script would loook like the following.
1350    
1351        BEGIN {
1352            # Print the HTML header.
1353            print "CONTENT-TYPE: text/html\n\n";
1354        }
1355        use Tracer;
1356        use CGI;
1357        use FIG;
1358        # ... more uses ...
1359    
1360        my ($cgi, $varHash) = ScriptSetup();
1361        eval {
1362            # ... get data from $cgi, put it in $varHash ...
1363        };
1364        if ($@) {
1365            Trace("Script Error: $@") if T(0);
1366        }
1367        ScriptFinish("Html/MyTemplate.html", $varHash);
1368    
1369    The idea here is that even if the script fails, you'll see trace messages and
1370    useful output.
1371    
1372    =over 4
1373    
1374    =item webData
1375    
1376    A string containing either the full web page to be written to the output or the
1377    name of a template file from which the page is to be constructed. If the name
1378    of a template file is specified, then the second parameter must be present;
1379    otherwise, it must be absent.
1380    
1381    =item varHash (optional)
1382    
1383    If specified, then a reference to a hash mapping variable names for a template
1384    to their values. The template file will be read into memory, and variable markers
1385    will be replaced by data in this hash reference.
1386    
1387    =back
1388    
1389    =cut
1390    
1391    sub ScriptFinish {
1392        # Get the parameters.
1393        my ($webData, $varHash) = @_;
1394        # Check for a template file situation.
1395        my $outputString;
1396        if (defined $varHash) {
1397            # Here we have a template file. We need to determine the template type.
1398            my $template;
1399            if ($FIG_Config::template_url && $webData =~ /\.php$/) {
1400                $template = "$FIG_Config::template_url/$webData";
1401            } else {
1402                $template = "<<$webData";
1403            }
1404            $outputString = PageBuilder::Build($template, $varHash, "Html");
1405        } else {
1406            # Here the user gave us a raw string.
1407            $outputString = $webData;
1408        }
1409        # Check for trace messages.
1410        if ($Destination ne "NONE" && $TraceLevel > 0) {
1411            # We have trace messages, so we want to put them at the end of the body. This
1412            # is either at the end of the whole string or at the beginning of the BODY
1413            # end-tag.
1414            my $pos = length $outputString;
1415            if ($outputString =~ m#</body>#gi) {
1416                $pos = (pos $outputString) - 7;
1417            }
1418            # If the trace messages were queued, we unroll them. Otherwise, we display the
1419            # destination.
1420            my $traceHtml;
1421            if ($Destination eq "QUEUE") {
1422                $traceHtml = QTrace('Html');
1423            } elsif ($Destination =~ /^>>(.+)$/) {
1424                # Here the tracing output it to a file. We code it as a hyperlink so the user
1425                # can copy the file name into the clipboard easily.
1426                my $actualDest = $1;
1427                $traceHtml = "<p>Tracing output to $actualDest.</p>\n";
1428            } else {
1429                # Here we have one of the special destinations.
1430                $traceHtml = "<P>Tracing output type is $Destination.</p>\n";
1431            }
1432            substr $outputString, $pos, 0, $traceHtml;
1433        }
1434        # Write the output string.
1435        print $outputString;
1436    }
1437    
1438    =head2 Command-Line Utility Methods
1439    
1440    =head3 SendSMS
1441    
1442        my $msgID = Tracer::SendSMS($phoneNumber, $msg);
1443    
1444    Send a text message to a phone number using Clickatell. The FIG_Config file must contain the
1445    user name, password, and API ID for the relevant account in the hash reference variable
1446    I<$FIG_Config::phone>, using the keys C<user>, C<password>, and C<api_id>. For
1447    example, if the user name is C<BruceTheHumanPet>, the password is C<silly>, and the API ID
1448    is C<2561022>, then the FIG_Config file must contain
1449    
1450        $phone =  { user => 'BruceTheHumanPet',
1451                    password => 'silly',
1452                    api_id => '2561022' };
1453    
1454    The original purpose of this method was to insure Bruce would be notified immediately when the
1455    Sprout Load terminates. Care should be taken if you do not wish Bruce to be notified immediately
1456    when you call this method.
1457    
1458    The message ID will be returned if successful, and C<undef> if an error occurs.
1459    
1460    =over 4
1461    
1462    =item phoneNumber
1463    
1464    Phone number to receive the message, in international format. A United States phone number
1465    would be prefixed by "1". A British phone number would be prefixed by "44".
1466    
1467    =item msg
1468    
1469    Message to send to the specified phone.
1470    
1471    =item RETURN
1472    
1473    Returns the message ID if successful, and C<undef> if the message could not be sent.
1474    
1475    =back
1476    
1477    =cut
1478    
1479    sub SendSMS {
1480        # Get the parameters.
1481        my ($phoneNumber, $msg) = @_;
1482        # Declare the return variable. If we do not change it, C<undef> will be returned.
1483        my $retVal;
1484        # Only proceed if we have phone support.
1485        if (! defined $FIG_Config::phone) {
1486            Trace("Phone support not present in FIG_Config.") if T(1);
1487        } else {
1488            # Get the phone data.
1489            my $parms = $FIG_Config::phone;
1490            # Get the Clickatell URL.
1491            my $url = "http://api.clickatell.com/http/";
1492            # Create the user agent.
1493            my $ua = LWP::UserAgent->new;
1494            # Request a Clickatell session.
1495            my $resp = $ua->post("$url/sendmsg", { user => $parms->{user},
1496                                         password => $parms->{password},
1497                                         api_id => $parms->{api_id},
1498                                         to => $phoneNumber,
1499                                         text => $msg});
1500            # Check for an error.
1501            if (! $resp->is_success) {
1502                Trace("Alert failed.") if T(1);
1503            } else {
1504                # Get the message ID.
1505                my $rstring = $resp->content;
1506                if ($rstring =~ /^ID:\s+(.*)$/) {
1507                    $retVal = $1;
1508                } else {
1509                    Trace("Phone attempt failed with $rstring") if T(1);
1510                }
1511            }
1512        }
1513        # Return the result.
1514        return $retVal;
1515    }
1516    
1517    =head3 StandardSetup
1518    
1519        my ($options, @parameters) = StandardSetup(\@categories, \%options, $parmHelp, @ARGV);
1520    
1521    This method performs standard command-line parsing and tracing setup. The return
1522    values are a hash of the command-line options and a list of the positional
1523    parameters. Tracing is automatically set up and the command-line options are
1524    validated.
1525    
1526    This is a complex method that does a lot of grunt work. The parameters can
1527    be more easily understood, however, once they are examined individually.
1528    
1529    The I<categories> parameter is the most obtuse. It is a reference to a list of
1530    special-purpose tracing categories. Most tracing categories are PERL package
1531    names. So, for example, if you wanted to turn on tracing inside the B<Sprout>,
1532    B<ERDB>, and B<SproutLoad> packages, you would specify the categories
1533    
1534        ["Sprout", "SproutLoad", "ERDB"]
1535    
1536    This would cause trace messages in the specified three packages to appear in
1537    the output. There are two special tracing categories that are automatically
1538    handled by this method. In other words, if you used L</TSetup> you would need
1539    to include these categories manually, but if you use this method they are turned
1540    on automatically.
1541    
1542    =over 4
1543    
1544    =item SQL
1545    
1546    Traces SQL commands and activity.
1547    
1548    =item Tracer
1549    
1550    Traces error messages and call stacks.
1551    
1552    =back
1553    
1554    C<SQL> is only turned on if the C<-sql> option is specified in the command line.
1555    The trace level is specified using the C<-trace> command-line option. For example,
1556    the following command line for C<TransactFeatures> turns on SQL tracing and runs
1557    all tracing at level 3.
1558    
1559        TransactFeatures -trace=3 -sql register ../xacts IDs.tbl
1560    
1561    Standard tracing is output to the standard output and echoed to the file
1562    C<trace>I<$$>C<.log> in the FIG temporary directory, where I<$$> is the
1563    process ID. You can also specify the C<user> parameter to put a user ID
1564    instead of a process ID in the trace file name. So, for example
1565    
1566    The default trace level is 2. To get all messages, specify a trace level of 4.
1567    For a genome-by-genome update, use 3.
1568    
1569        TransactFeatures -trace=3 -sql -user=Bruce register ../xacts IDs.tbl
1570    
1571    would send the trace output to C<traceBruce.log> in the temporary directory.
1572    
1573    The I<options> parameter is a reference to a hash containing the command-line
1574    options, their default values, and an explanation of what they mean. Command-line
1575    options may be in the form of switches or keywords. In the case of a switch, the
1576    option value is 1 if it is specified and 0 if it is not specified. In the case
1577    of a keyword, the value is separated from the option name by an equal sign. You
1578    can see this last in the command-line example above.
1579    
1580    You can specify a different default trace level by setting C<$options->{trace}>
1581    prior to calling this method.
1582    
1583    An example at this point would help. Consider, for example, the command-line utility
1584    C<TransactFeatures>. It accepts a list of positional parameters plus the options
1585    C<safe>, C<noAlias>, C<start>, and C<tblFiles>. To start up this command, we execute
1586    the following code.
1587    
1588        my ($options, @parameters) = Tracer::StandardSetup(["DocUtils"],
1589                            { safe => [0, "use database transactions"],
1590                              noAlias => [0, "do not expect aliases in CHANGE transactions"],
1591                              start => [' ', "start with this genome"],
1592                              tblFiles => [0, "output TBL files containing the corrected IDs"] },
1593                            "<command> <transactionDirectory> <IDfile>",
1594                          @ARGV);
1595    
1596    
1597    The call to C<ParseCommand> specifies the default values for the options and
1598    stores the actual options in a hash that is returned as C<$options>. The
1599    positional parameters are returned in C<@parameters>.
1600    
1601    The following is a sample command line for C<TransactFeatures>.
1602    
1603        TransactFeatures -trace=2 -noAlias register ../xacts IDs.tbl
1604    
1605    Single and double hyphens are equivalent. So, you could also code the
1606    above command as
1607    
1608        TransactFeatures --trace=2 --noAlias register ../xacts IDs.tbl
1609    
1610    In this case, C<register>, C<../xacts>, and C<IDs.tbl> are the positional
1611    parameters, and would find themselves in I<@parameters> after executing the
1612    above code fragment. The tracing would be set to level 2, and the categories
1613    would be C<Tracer>, and <DocUtils>. C<Tracer> is standard,
1614    and C<DocUtils> was included because it came in within the first parameter
1615    to this method. The I<$options> hash would be
1616    
1617        { trace => 2, sql => 0, safe => 0,
1618          noAlias => 1, start => ' ', tblFiles => 0 }
1619    
1620    Use of C<StandardSetup> in this way provides a simple way of performing
1621    standard tracing setup and command-line parsing. Note that the caller is
1622    not even aware of the command-line switches C<-trace> and C<-sql>, which
1623    are used by this method to control the tracing. If additional tracing features
1624    need to be added in the future, they can be processed by this method without
1625    upsetting the command-line utilities.
1626    
1627    If the C<background> option is specified on the command line, then the
1628    standard and error outputs will be directed to files in the temporary
1629    directory, using the same suffix as the trace file. So, if the command
1630    line specified
1631    
1632        -user=Bruce -background
1633    
1634    then the trace output would go to C<traceBruce.log>, the standard output to
1635    C<outBruce.log>, and the error output to C<errBruce.log>. This is designed to
1636    simplify starting a command in the background.
1637    
1638    The user name is also used as the tracing key for L</Emergency Tracing>.
1639    Specifying a value of C<E> for the trace level causes emergency tracing to
1640    be used instead of custom tracing. If the user name is not specified,
1641    the tracing key is taken from the C<Tracing> environment variable. If there
1642    is no value for that variable, the tracing key will be computed from the PID.
1643    
1644    Finally, if the special option C<-help> is specified, the option
1645    names will be traced at level 0 and the program will exit without processing.
1646    This provides a limited help capability. For example, if the user enters
1647    
1648        TransactFeatures -help
1649    
1650    he would see the following output.
1651    
1652        TransactFeatures [options] <command> <transactionDirectory> <IDfile>
1653            -trace    tracing level (default E)
1654            -sql      trace SQL commands
1655            -safe     use database transactions
1656            -noAlias  do not expect aliases in CHANGE transactions
1657            -start    start with this genome
1658            -tblFiles output TBL files containing the corrected IDs
1659    
1660    The caller has the option of modifying the tracing scheme by placing a value
1661    for C<trace> in the incoming options hash. The default value can be overridden,
1662    or the tracing to the standard output can be turned off by suffixing a minus
1663    sign to the trace level. So, for example,
1664    
1665        { trace => [0, "tracing level (default 0)"],
1666           ...
1667    
1668    would set the default trace level to 0 instead of E, while
1669    
1670        { trace => ["2-", "tracing level (default 2)"],
1671           ...
1672    
1673    would set the default to 2, but trace only to the log file, not to the
1674    standard output.
1675    
1676    The parameters to this method are as follows.
1677    
1678    =over 4
1679    
1680    =item categories
1681    
1682    Reference to a list of tracing category names. These should be names of
1683    packages whose internal workings will need to be debugged to get the
1684    command working.
1685    
1686    =item options
1687    
1688    Reference to a hash containing the legal options for the current command mapped
1689    to their default values and descriptions. The user can override the defaults
1690    by specifying the options as command-line switches prefixed by a hyphen.
1691    Tracing-related options may be added to this hash. If the C<-h> option is
1692    specified on the command line, the option descriptions will be used to
1693    explain the options. To turn off tracing to the standard output, add a
1694    minus sign to the value for C<trace> (see above).
1695    
1696    =item parmHelp
1697    
1698    A string that vaguely describes the positional parameters. This is used
1699    if the user specifies the C<-h> option.
1700    
1701    =item argv
1702    
1703    List of command line parameters, including the option switches, which must
1704    precede the positional parameters and be prefixed by a hyphen.
1705    
1706    =item RETURN
1707    
1708    Returns a list. The first element of the list is the reference to a hash that
1709    maps the command-line option switches to their values. These will either be the
1710    default values or overrides specified on the command line. The remaining
1711    elements of the list are the position parameters, in order.
1712    
1713    =back
1714    
1715    =cut
1716    
1717    sub StandardSetup {
1718        # Get the parameters.
1719        my ($categories, $options, $parmHelp, @argv) = @_;
1720        # Get the default tracing key.
1721        my $tkey = EmergencyKey();
1722        # Add the tracing options.
1723        if (! exists $options->{trace}) {
1724            $options->{trace} = ['2', "tracing level (E for emergency tracing)"];
1725        }
1726        $options->{sql} = [0, "turn on SQL tracing"];
1727        $options->{help} = [0, "display command-line options"];
1728        $options->{user} = [$tkey, "tracing key"];
1729        $options->{background} = [0, "spool standard and error output"];
1730        # Create a parsing hash from the options hash. The parsing hash
1731        # contains the default values rather than the default value
1732        # and the description. While we're at it, we'll memorize the
1733        # length of the longest option name.
1734        my $longestName = 0;
1735        my %parseOptions = ();
1736        for my $key (keys %{$options}) {
1737            if (length $key > $longestName) {
1738                $longestName = length $key;
1739            }
1740            $parseOptions{$key} = $options->{$key}->[0];
1741        }
1742        # Parse the command line.
1743        my ($retOptions, @retParameters) = ParseCommand(\%parseOptions, @argv);
1744        # Get the logfile suffix.
1745        my $suffix = $retOptions->{user};
1746        # Check for background mode.
1747        if ($retOptions->{background}) {
1748            my $outFileName = "$FIG_Config::temp/out$suffix.log";
1749            my $errFileName = "$FIG_Config::temp/err$suffix.log";
1750            open STDOUT, ">$outFileName";
1751            open STDERR, ">$errFileName";
1752            # Check for phone support. If we have phone support and a phone number,
1753            # we want to turn it on.
1754            if ($ENV{PHONE} && defined($FIG_Config::phone)) {
1755                $retOptions->{phone} = $ENV{PHONE};
1756            }
1757        }
1758        # Now we want to set up tracing. First, we need to know if the user
1759        # wants emergency tracing.
1760        if ($retOptions->{trace} eq 'E') {
1761            ETracing($retOptions->{user});
1762        } else {
1763            # Here the tracing is controlled from the command line.
1764            my @cats = @{$categories};
1765            if ($retOptions->{sql}) {
1766                push @cats, "SQL";
1767            }
1768            # Add the default categories.
1769            push @cats, "Tracer";
1770            # Next, we create the category string by joining the categories.
1771            my $cats = join(" ", @cats);
1772            # Check to determine whether or not the caller wants to turn off tracing
1773            # to the standard output.
1774            my $traceLevel = $retOptions->{trace};
1775            my $textOKFlag = 1;
1776            if ($traceLevel =~ /^(.)-/) {
1777                $traceLevel = $1;
1778                $textOKFlag = 0;
1779            }
1780            # Now we set up the trace mode.
1781            my $traceMode;
1782            # Verify that we can open a file in the FIG temporary directory.
1783            my $traceFileName = "$FIG_Config::temp/trace$suffix.log";
1784            if (open TESTTRACE, ">$traceFileName") {
1785                # Here we can trace to a file.
1786                $traceMode = ">$traceFileName";
1787                if ($textOKFlag) {
1788                    # Echo to standard output if the text-OK flag is set.
1789                    $traceMode = "+$traceMode";
1790                }
1791                # Close the test file.
1792                close TESTTRACE;
1793            } else {
1794                # Here we can't trace to a file. Complain about this.
1795                warn "Could not open trace file $traceFileName: $!\n";
1796                # We trace to the standard output if it's
1797                # okay, and the error log otherwise.
1798                if ($textOKFlag) {
1799                    $traceMode = "TEXT";
1800                } else {
1801                    $traceMode = "WARN";
1802                }
1803            }
1804            # Now set up the tracing.
1805            TSetup("$traceLevel $cats", $traceMode);
1806        }
1807        # Check for the "help" option. If it is specified, dump the command-line
1808        # options and exit the program.
1809        if ($retOptions->{help}) {
1810            $0 =~ m#[/\\](\w+)(\.pl)?$#i;
1811            print "$1 [options] $parmHelp\n";
1812            for my $key (sort keys %{$options}) {
1813                my $name = Pad($key, $longestName, 0, ' ');
1814                my $desc = $options->{$key}->[1];
1815                if ($options->{$key}->[0]) {
1816                    $desc .= " (default " . $options->{$key}->[0] . ")";
1817                }
1818                print "  $name $desc\n";
1819            }
1820            exit(0);
1821        }
1822        # Trace the options, if applicable.
1823        if (T(3)) {
1824            my @parms = grep { $retOptions->{$_} } keys %{$retOptions};
1825            Trace("Selected options: " . join(", ", sort @parms) . ".");
1826        }
1827        # Return the parsed parameters.
1828        return ($retOptions, @retParameters);
1829    }
1830    
1831    =head3 ReadOptions
1832    
1833        my %options = Tracer::ReadOptions($fileName);
1834    
1835    Read a set of options from a file. Each option is encoded in a line of text that has the
1836    format
1837    
1838    I<optionName>C<=>I<optionValue>C<; >I<comment>
1839    
1840    The option name must consist entirely of letters, digits, and the punctuation characters
1841    C<.> and C<_>, and is case sensitive. Blank lines and lines in which the first nonblank
1842    character is a semi-colon will be ignored. The return hash will map each option name to
1843    the corresponding option value.
1844    
1845    =over 4
1846    
1847    =item fileName
1848    
1849    Name of the file containing the option data.
1850    
1851    =item RETURN
1852    
1853    Returns a hash mapping the option names specified in the file to their corresponding option
1854    value.
1855    
1856    =back
1857    
1858    =cut
1859    
1860    sub ReadOptions {
1861        # Get the parameters.
1862        my ($fileName) = @_;
1863        # Open the file.
1864        (open CONFIGFILE, "<$fileName") || Confess("Could not open option file $fileName.");
1865        # Count the number of records read.
1866        my ($records, $comments) = 0;
1867        # Create the return hash.
1868        my %retVal = ();
1869        # Loop through the file, accumulating key-value pairs.
1870        while (my $line = <CONFIGFILE>) {
1871            # Denote we've read a line.
1872            $records++;
1873            # Determine the line type.
1874            if ($line =~ /^\s*[\n\r]/) {
1875                # A blank line is a comment.
1876                $comments++;
1877            } elsif ($line =~ /^\s*([A-Za-z0-9_\.]+)=([^;]*);/) {
1878                # Here we have an option assignment.
1879                retVal{$1} = $2;
1880            } elsif ($line =~ /^\s*;/) {
1881                # Here we have a text comment.
1882                $comments++;
1883            } else {
1884                # Here we have an invalid line.
1885                Trace("Invalid option statement in record $records.") if T(0);
1886            }
1887        }
1888        # Return the hash created.
1889        return %retVal;
1890    }
1891    
1892    =head3 GetOptions
1893    
1894        Tracer::GetOptions(\%defaults, \%options);
1895    
1896    Merge a specified set of options into a table of defaults. This method takes two hash references
1897    as input and uses the data from the second to update the first. If the second does not exist,
1898    there will be no effect. An error will be thrown if one of the entries in the second hash does not
1899    exist in the first.
1900    
1901    Consider the following example.
1902    
1903        my $optionTable = GetOptions({ dbType => 'mySQL', trace => 0 }, $options);
1904    
1905    In this example, the variable B<$options> is expected to contain at most two options-- B<dbType> and
1906    B<trace>. The default database type is C<mySQL> and the default trace level is C<0>. If the value of
1907    B<$options> is C<< {dbType => 'Oracle'} >>, then the database type will be changed to C<Oracle> and
1908    the trace level will remain at 0. If B<$options> is undefined, then the database type and trace level
1909    will remain C<mySQL> and C<0>. If, on the other hand, B<$options> is defined as
1910    
1911        {databaseType => 'Oracle'}
1912    
1913    an error will occur because the B<databaseType> option does not exist.
1914    
1915    =over 4
1916    
1917    =item defaults
1918    
1919    Table of default option values.
1920    
1921    =item options
1922    
1923    Table of overrides, if any.
1924    
1925    =item RETURN
1926    
1927    Returns a reference to the default table passed in as the first parameter.
1928    
1929    =back
1930    
1931    =cut
1932    
1933    sub GetOptions {
1934        # Get the parameters.
1935        my ($defaults, $options) = @_;
1936        # Check for overrides.
1937        if ($options) {
1938            # Loop through the overrides.
1939            while (my ($option, $setting) = each %{$options}) {
1940                # Insure this override exists.
1941                if (!exists $defaults->{$option}) {
1942                    croak "Unrecognized option $option encountered.";
1943                } else {
1944                    # Apply the override.
1945                    $defaults->{$option} = $setting;
1946                }
1947            }
1948        }
1949        # Return the merged table.
1950        return $defaults;
1951    }
1952    
1953    =head3 MergeOptions
1954    
1955        Tracer::MergeOptions(\%table, \%defaults);
1956    
1957    Merge default values into a hash table. This method looks at the key-value pairs in the
1958    second (default) hash, and if a matching key is not found in the first hash, the default
1959    pair is copied in. The process is similar to L</GetOptions>, but there is no error-
1960    checking and no return value.
1961    
1962    =over 4
1963    
1964    =item table
1965    
1966  C<< my $handle = Open($fileHandle, $fileSpec, $message); >>  Hash table to be updated with the default values.
1967    
1968    =item defaults
1969    
1970    Default values to be merged into the first hash table if they are not already present.
1971    
1972    =back
1973    
1974    =cut
1975    
1976    sub MergeOptions {
1977        # Get the parameters.
1978        my ($table, $defaults) = @_;
1979        # Loop through the defaults.
1980        while (my ($key, $value) = each %{$defaults}) {
1981            if (!exists $table->{$key}) {
1982                $table->{$key} = $value;
1983            }
1984        }
1985    }
1986    
1987    =head3 ParseCommand
1988    
1989        my ($options, @arguments) = Tracer::ParseCommand(\%optionTable, @inputList);
1990    
1991    Parse a command line consisting of a list of parameters. The initial parameters may be option
1992    specifiers of the form C<->I<option> or C<->I<option>C<=>I<value>. The options are stripped
1993    off and merged into a table of default options. The remainder of the command line is
1994    returned as a list of positional arguments. For example, consider the following invocation.
1995    
1996        my ($options, @arguments) = ParseCommand({ errors => 0, logFile => 'trace.log'}, @words);
1997    
1998    In this case, the list @words will be treated as a command line and there are two options available,
1999    B<errors> and B<logFile>. If @words has the following format
2000    
2001        -logFile=error.log apple orange rutabaga
2002    
2003    then at the end of the invocation, C<$options> will be
2004    
2005        { errors => 0, logFile => 'error.log' }
2006    
2007    and C<@arguments> will contain
2008    
2009        apple orange rutabaga
2010    
2011    The parser allows for some escape sequences. See L</UnEscape> for a description. There is no
2012    support for quote characters. Options can be specified with single or double hyphens.
2013    
2014    =over 4
2015    
2016    =item optionTable
2017    
2018    Table of default options.
2019    
2020    =item inputList
2021    
2022    List of words on the command line.
2023    
2024    =item RETURN
2025    
2026    Returns a reference to the option table and a list of the positional arguments.
2027    
2028    =back
2029    
2030    =cut
2031    
2032    sub ParseCommand {
2033        # Get the parameters.
2034        my ($optionTable, @inputList) = @_;
2035        # Process any options in the input list.
2036        my %overrides = ();
2037        while ((@inputList > 0) && ($inputList[0] =~ /^--?/)) {
2038            # Get the current option.
2039            my $arg = shift @inputList;
2040            # Pull out the option name.
2041            $arg =~ /^--?([^=]*)/g;
2042            my $name = $1;
2043            # Check for an option value.
2044            if ($arg =~ /\G=(.*)$/g) {
2045                # Here we have a value for the option.
2046                $overrides{$name} = UnEscape($1);
2047            } else {
2048                # Here there is no value, so we use 1.
2049                $overrides{$name} = 1;
2050            }
2051        }
2052        # Merge the options into the defaults.
2053        GetOptions($optionTable, \%overrides);
2054        # Translate the remaining parameters.
2055        my @retVal = ();
2056        for my $inputParm (@inputList) {
2057            push @retVal, UnEscape($inputParm);
2058        }
2059        # Return the results.
2060        return ($optionTable, @retVal);
2061    }
2062    
2063    
2064    =head2 File Utility Methods
2065    
2066    =head3 GetFile
2067    
2068        my @fileContents = Tracer::GetFile($fileName);
2069    
2070        or
2071    
2072        my $fileContents = Tracer::GetFile($fileName);
2073    
2074    Return the entire contents of a file. In list context, line-ends are removed and
2075    each line is a list element. In scalar context, line-ends are replaced by C<\n>.
2076    
2077    =over 4
2078    
2079    =item fileName
2080    
2081    Name of the file to read.
2082    
2083    =item RETURN
2084    
2085    In a list context, returns the entire file as a list with the line terminators removed.
2086    In a scalar context, returns the entire file as a string. If an error occurs opening
2087    the file, an empty list will be returned.
2088    
2089    =back
2090    
2091    =cut
2092    
2093    sub GetFile {
2094        # Get the parameters.
2095        my ($fileName) = @_;
2096        # Declare the return variable.
2097        my @retVal = ();
2098        # Open the file for input.
2099        my $handle = Open(undef, "<$fileName");
2100        # Read the whole file into the return variable, stripping off any terminator
2101        # characters.
2102        my $lineCount = 0;
2103        while (my $line = <$handle>) {
2104            $lineCount++;
2105            $line = Strip($line);
2106            push @retVal, $line;
2107        }
2108        # Close it.
2109        close $handle;
2110        my $actualLines = @retVal;
2111        Trace("$actualLines lines read from file $fileName.") if T(File => 2);
2112        # Return the file's contents in the desired format.
2113        if (wantarray) {
2114            return @retVal;
2115        } else {
2116            return join "\n", @retVal;
2117        }
2118    }
2119    
2120    =head3 PutFile
2121    
2122        Tracer::PutFile($fileName, \@lines);
2123    
2124    Write out a file from a list of lines of text.
2125    
2126    =over 4
2127    
2128    =item fileName
2129    
2130    Name of the output file.
2131    
2132    =item lines
2133    
2134    Reference to a list of text lines. The lines will be written to the file in order, with trailing
2135    new-line characters. Alternatively, may be a string, in which case the string will be written without
2136    modification.
2137    
2138    =back
2139    
2140    =cut
2141    
2142    sub PutFile {
2143        # Get the parameters.
2144        my ($fileName, $lines) = @_;
2145        # Open the output file.
2146        my $handle = Open(undef, ">$fileName");
2147        # Count the lines written.
2148        if (ref $lines ne 'ARRAY') {
2149            # Here we have a scalar, so we write it raw.
2150            print $handle $lines;
2151            Trace("Scalar put to file $fileName.") if T(File => 3);
2152        } else {
2153            # Write the lines one at a time.
2154            my $count = 0;
2155            for my $line (@{$lines}) {
2156                print $handle "$line\n";
2157                $count++;
2158            }
2159            Trace("$count lines put to file $fileName.") if T(File => 3);
2160        }
2161        # Close the output file.
2162        close $handle;
2163    }
2164    
2165    =head3 ParseRecord
2166    
2167        my @fields = Tracer::ParseRecord($line);
2168    
2169    Parse a tab-delimited data line. The data line is split into field values. Embedded tab
2170    and new-line characters in the data line must be represented as C<\t> and C<\n>, respectively.
2171    These will automatically be converted.
2172    
2173    =over 4
2174    
2175    =item line
2176    
2177    Line of data containing the tab-delimited fields.
2178    
2179    =item RETURN
2180    
2181    Returns a list of the fields found in the data line.
2182    
2183    =back
2184    
2185    =cut
2186    
2187    sub ParseRecord {
2188        # Get the parameter.
2189        my ($line) = @_;
2190        # Remove the trailing new-line, if any.
2191        chomp $line;
2192        # Split the line read into pieces using the tab character.
2193        my @retVal = split /\t/, $line;
2194        # Trim and fix the escapes in each piece.
2195        for my $value (@retVal) {
2196            # Trim leading whitespace.
2197            $value =~ s/^\s+//;
2198            # Trim trailing whitespace.
2199            $value =~ s/\s+$//;
2200            # Delete the carriage returns.
2201            $value =~ s/\r//g;
2202            # Convert the escapes into their real values.
2203            $value =~ s/\\t/"\t"/ge;
2204            $value =~ s/\\n/"\n"/ge;
2205        }
2206        # Return the result.
2207        return @retVal;
2208    }
2209    
2210    =head3 Merge
2211    
2212        my @mergedList = Tracer::Merge(@inputList);
2213    
2214    Sort a list of strings and remove duplicates.
2215    
2216    =over 4
2217    
2218    =item inputList
2219    
2220    List of scalars to sort and merge.
2221    
2222    =item RETURN
2223    
2224    Returns a list containing the same elements sorted in ascending order with duplicates
2225    removed.
2226    
2227    =back
2228    
2229    =cut
2230    
2231    sub Merge {
2232        # Get the input list in sort order.
2233        my @inputList = sort @_;
2234        # Only proceed if the list has at least two elements.
2235        if (@inputList > 1) {
2236            # Now we want to move through the list splicing out duplicates.
2237            my $i = 0;
2238            while ($i < @inputList) {
2239                # Get the current entry.
2240                my $thisEntry = $inputList[$i];
2241                # Find out how many elements duplicate the current entry.
2242                my $j = $i + 1;
2243                my $dup1 = $i + 1;
2244                while ($j < @inputList && $inputList[$j] eq $thisEntry) { $j++; };
2245                # If the number is nonzero, splice out the duplicates found.
2246                if ($j > $dup1) {
2247                    splice @inputList, $dup1, $j - $dup1;
2248                }
2249                # Now the element at position $dup1 is different from the element before it
2250                # at position $i. We push $i forward one position and start again.
2251                $i++;
2252            }
2253        }
2254        # Return the merged list.
2255        return @inputList;
2256    }
2257    
2258    =head3 Open
2259    
2260        my $handle = Open($fileHandle, $fileSpec, $message);
2261    
2262  Open a file.  Open a file.
2263    
# Line 534  Line 2349 
2349    
2350  =head3 FindNamePart  =head3 FindNamePart
2351    
2352  C<< my ($fileName, $start, $len) = Tracer::FindNamePart($fileSpec); >>      my ($fileName, $start, $len) = Tracer::FindNamePart($fileSpec);
2353    
2354  Extract the portion of a file specification that contains the file name.  Extract the portion of a file specification that contains the file name.
2355    
# Line 585  Line 2400 
2400    
2401  =head3 OpenDir  =head3 OpenDir
2402    
2403  C<< my @files = OpenDir($dirName, $filtered, $flag); >>      my @files = OpenDir($dirName, $filtered, $flag);
2404    
2405  Open a directory and return all the file names. This function essentially performs  Open a directory and return all the file names. This function essentially performs
2406  the functions of an C<opendir> and C<readdir>. If the I<$filtered> parameter is  the functions of an C<opendir> and C<readdir>. If the I<$filtered> parameter is
# Line 646  Line 2461 
2461          Confess("Could not open directory $dirName.");          Confess("Could not open directory $dirName.");
2462      }      }
2463      # Return the result.      # Return the result.
2464      return @retVal;      return @retVal;
2465  }  }
   
 =head3 SetLevel  
   
 C<< Tracer::SetLevel($newLevel); >>  
2466    
 Modify the trace level. A higher trace level will cause more messages to appear.  
2467    
2468  =over 4  =head3 Insure
2469    
2470  =item newLevel      Insure($dirName, $chmod);
2471    
2472  Proposed new trace level.  Insure a directory is present.
2473    
2474  =back  =over 4
2475    
2476  =cut  =item dirName
2477    
2478  sub SetLevel {  Name of the directory to check. If it does not exist, it will be created.
     $TraceLevel = $_[0];  
 }  
2479    
2480  =head3 Now  =item chmod (optional)
2481    
2482  C<< my $string = Tracer::Now(); >>  Security privileges to be given to the directory if it is created.
2483    
2484  Return a displayable time stamp containing the local time.  =back
2485    
2486  =cut  =cut
2487    
2488  sub Now {  sub Insure {
2489      my ($sec,$min,$hour,$mday,$mon,$year,$wday,$yday,$isdst) = localtime(time);      my ($dirName, $chmod) = @_;
2490      my $retVal = _p2($mon+1) . "/" . _p2($mday) . "/" . ($year + 1900) . " " .      if (! -d $dirName) {
2491                   _p2($hour) . ":" . _p2($min) . ":" . _p2($sec);          Trace("Creating $dirName directory.") if T(2);
2492      return $retVal;          eval {
2493                mkpath $dirName;
2494                # If we have permissions specified, set them here.
2495                if (defined($chmod)) {
2496                    chmod $chmod, $dirName;
2497                }
2498            };
2499            if ($@) {
2500                Confess("Error creating $dirName: $@");
2501            }
2502  }  }
   
 # Pad a number to 2 digits.  
 sub _p2 {  
     my ($value) = @_;  
     $value = "0$value" if ($value < 10);  
     return $value;  
2503  }  }
2504    
2505  =head3 LogErrors  =head3 ChDir
2506    
2507  C<< Tracer::LogErrors($fileName); >>      ChDir($dirName);
2508    
2509  Route the standard error output to a log file.  Change to the specified directory.
2510    
2511  =over 4  =over 4
2512    
2513  =item fileName  =item dirName
2514    
2515  Name of the file to receive the error output.  Name of the directory to which we want to change.
2516    
2517  =back  =back
2518    
2519  =cut  =cut
2520    
2521  sub LogErrors {  sub ChDir {
2522      # Get the file name.      my ($dirName) = @_;
2523      my ($fileName) = @_;      if (! -d $dirName) {
2524      # Open the file as the standard error output.          Confess("Cannot change to directory $dirName: no such directory.");
2525      open STDERR, '>', $fileName;      } else {
2526            Trace("Changing to directory $dirName.") if T(File => 4);
2527            my $okFlag = chdir $dirName;
2528            if (! $okFlag) {
2529                Confess("Error switching to directory $dirName.");
2530            }
2531        }
2532  }  }
2533    
2534  =head3 ReadOptions  =head3 SetPermissions
   
 C<< my %options = Tracer::ReadOptions($fileName); >>  
2535    
2536  Read a set of options from a file. Each option is encoded in a line of text that has the      Tracer::SetPermissions($dirName, $group, $mask, %otherMasks);
 format  
2537    
2538  I<optionName>C<=>I<optionValue>C<; >I<comment>  Set the permissions for a directory and all the files and folders inside it.
2539    In addition, the group ownership will be changed to the specified value.
2540    
2541  The option name must consist entirely of letters, digits, and the punctuation characters  This method is more vulnerable than most to permission and compatability
2542  C<.> and C<_>, and is case sensitive. Blank lines and lines in which the first nonblank  problems, so it does internal error recovery.
 character is a semi-colon will be ignored. The return hash will map each option name to  
 the corresponding option value.  
2543    
2544  =over 4  =over 4
2545    
2546  =item fileName  =item dirName
2547    
2548  Name of the file containing the option data.  Name of the directory to process.
2549    
2550  =item RETURN  =item group
2551    
2552  Returns a hash mapping the option names specified in the file to their corresponding option  Name of the group to be assigned.
2553  value.  
2554    =item mask
2555    
2556    Permission mask. Bits that are C<1> in this mask will be ORed into the
2557    permission bits of any file or directory that does not already have them
2558    set to 1.
2559    
2560    =item otherMasks
2561    
2562    Map of search patterns to permission masks. If a directory name matches
2563    one of the patterns, that directory and all its members and subdirectories
2564    will be assigned the new pattern. For example, the following would
2565    assign 01664 to most files, but would use 01777 for directories named C<tmp>.
2566    
2567        Tracer::SetPermissions($dirName, 'fig', 01664, '^tmp$' => 01777);
2568    
2569    The list is ordered, so the following would use 0777 for C<tmp1> and
2570    0666 for C<tmp>, C<tmp2>, or C<tmp3>.
2571    
2572        Tracer::SetPermissions($dirName, 'fig', 01664, '^tmp1' => 0777,
2573                                                       '^tmp' => 0666);
2574    
2575    Note that the pattern matches are all case-insensitive, and only directory
2576    names are matched, not file names.
2577    
2578  =back  =back
2579    
2580  =cut  =cut
2581    
2582  sub ReadOptions {  sub SetPermissions {
2583      # Get the parameters.      # Get the parameters.
2584      my ($fileName) = @_;      my ($dirName, $group, $mask, @otherMasks) = @_;
2585      # Open the file.      # Set up for error recovery.
2586      (open CONFIGFILE, "<$fileName") || Confess("Could not open option file $fileName.");      eval {
2587      # Count the number of records read.          # Switch to the specified directory.
2588      my ($records, $comments) = 0;          ChDir($dirName);
2589      # Create the return hash.          # Get the group ID.
2590      my %retVal = ();          my $gid = getgrnam($group);
2591      # Loop through the file, accumulating key-value pairs.          # Get the mask for tracing.
2592      while (my $line = <CONFIGFILE>) {          my $traceMask = sprintf("%04o", $mask) . "($mask)";
2593          # Denote we've read a line.          Trace("Fixing permissions for directory $dirName using group $group($gid) and mask $traceMask.") if T(File => 2);
2594          $records++;          my $fixCount = 0;
2595          # Determine the line type.          my $lookCount = 0;
2596          if ($line =~ /^\s*[\n\r]/) {          # @dirs will be a stack of directories to be processed.
2597              # A blank line is a comment.          my @dirs = (getcwd());
2598              $comments++;          while (scalar(@dirs) > 0) {
2599          } elsif ($line =~ /^\s*([A-Za-z0-9_\.]+)=([^;]*);/) {              # Get the current directory.
2600              # Here we have an option assignment.              my $dir = pop @dirs;
2601              retVal{$1} = $2;              # Check for a match to one of the specified directory names. To do
2602          } elsif ($line =~ /^\s*;/) {              # that, we need to pull the individual part of the name off of the
2603              # Here we have a text comment.              # whole path.
2604              $comments++;              my $simpleName = $dir;
2605                if ($dir =~ m!/([^/]+)$!) {
2606                    $simpleName = $1;
2607                }
2608                Trace("Simple directory name for $dir is $simpleName.") if T(File => 4);
2609                # Search for a match.
2610                my $match = 0;
2611                my $i;
2612                for ($i = 0; $i < $#otherMasks && ! $match; $i += 2) {
2613                    my $pattern = $otherMasks[$i];
2614                    if ($simpleName =~ /$pattern/i) {
2615                        $match = 1;
2616                    }
2617                }
2618                # Check for a match. Note we use $i-1 because the loop added 2
2619                # before terminating due to the match.
2620                if ($match && $otherMasks[$i-1] != $mask) {
2621                    # This directory matches one of the incoming patterns, and it's
2622                    # a different mask, so we process it recursively with that mask.
2623                    SetPermissions($dir, $group, $otherMasks[$i-1], @otherMasks);
2624          } else {          } else {
2625              # Here we have an invalid line.                  # Here we can process normally. Get all of the non-hidden members.
2626              Trace("Invalid option statement in record $records.") if T(0);                  my @submems = OpenDir($dir, 1);
2627                    for my $submem (@submems) {
2628                        # Get the full name.
2629                        my $thisMem = "$dir/$submem";
2630                        Trace("Checking member $thisMem.") if T(4);
2631                        $lookCount++;
2632                        if ($lookCount % 1000 == 0) {
2633                            Trace("$lookCount members examined. Current is $thisMem. Mask is $traceMask") if T(File => 3);
2634                        }
2635                        # Fix the group.
2636                        chown -1, $gid, $thisMem;
2637                        # Insure this member is not a symlink.
2638                        if (! -l $thisMem) {
2639                            # Get its info.
2640                            my $fileInfo = stat $thisMem;
2641                            # Only proceed if we got the info. Otherwise, it's a hard link
2642                            # and we want to skip it anyway.
2643                            if ($fileInfo) {
2644                                my $fileMode = $fileInfo->mode;
2645                                if (($fileMode & $mask) != $mask) {
2646                                    # Fix this member.
2647                                    $fileMode |= $mask;
2648                                    chmod $fileMode, $thisMem;
2649                                    $fixCount++;
2650                                }
2651                                # If it's a subdirectory, stack it.
2652                                if (-d $thisMem) {
2653                                    push @dirs, $thisMem;
2654          }          }
2655      }      }
2656      # Return the hash created.                      }
2657      return %retVal;                  }
2658                }
2659            }
2660            Trace("$lookCount files and directories processed, $fixCount fixed.") if T(File => 2);
2661        };
2662        # Check for an error.
2663        if ($@) {
2664            Confess("SetPermissions error: $@");
2665        }
2666  }  }
2667    
2668  =head3 GetOptions  =head3 GetLine
   
 C<< Tracer::GetOptions(\%defaults, \%options); >>  
   
 Merge a specified set of options into a table of defaults. This method takes two hash references  
 as input and uses the data from the second to update the first. If the second does not exist,  
 there will be no effect. An error will be thrown if one of the entries in the second hash does not  
 exist in the first.  
   
 Consider the following example.  
   
 C<< my $optionTable = GetOptions({ dbType => 'mySQL', trace => 0 }, $options); >>  
   
 In this example, the variable B<$options> is expected to contain at most two options-- B<dbType> and  
 B<trace>. The default database type is C<mySQL> and the default trace level is C<0>. If the value of  
 B<$options> is C<< {dbType => 'Oracle'} >>, then the database type will be changed to C<Oracle> and  
 the trace level will remain at 0. If B<$options> is undefined, then the database type and trace level  
 will remain C<mySQL> and C<0>. If, on the other hand, B<$options> is defined as  
2669    
2670  C<< {databaseType => 'Oracle'} >>      my @data = Tracer::GetLine($handle);
2671    
2672  an error will occur because the B<databaseType> option does not exist.  Read a line of data from a tab-delimited file.
2673    
2674  =over 4  =over 4
2675    
2676  =item defaults  =item handle
   
 Table of default option values.  
   
 =item options  
2677    
2678  Table of overrides, if any.  Open file handle from which to read.
2679    
2680  =item RETURN  =item RETURN
2681    
2682  Returns a reference to the default table passed in as the first parameter.  Returns a list of the fields in the record read. The fields are presumed to be
2683    tab-delimited. If we are at the end of the file, then an empty list will be
2684    returned. If an empty line is read, a single list item consisting of a null
2685    string will be returned.
2686    
2687  =back  =back
2688    
2689  =cut  =cut
2690    
2691  sub GetOptions {  sub GetLine {
2692      # Get the parameters.      # Get the parameters.
2693      my ($defaults, $options) = @_;      my ($handle) = @_;
2694      # Check for overrides.      # Declare the return variable.
2695      if ($options) {      my @retVal = ();
2696          # Loop through the overrides.      Trace("File position is " . tell($handle) . ". EOF flag is " . eof($handle) . ".") if T(File => 4);
2697          while (my ($option, $setting) = each %{$options}) {      # Read from the file.
2698              # Insure this override exists.      my $line = <$handle>;
2699              if (!exists $defaults->{$option}) {      # Only proceed if we found something.
2700                  croak "Unrecognized option $option encountered.";      if (defined $line) {
2701            # Remove the new-line. We are a bit over-cautious here because the file may be coming in via an
2702            # upload control and have a nonstandard EOL combination.
2703            $line =~ s/(\r|\n)+$//;
2704            # Here we do some fancy tracing to help in debugging complicated EOL marks.
2705            if (T(File => 4)) {
2706                my $escapedLine = $line;
2707                $escapedLine =~ s/\n/\\n/g;
2708                $escapedLine =~ s/\r/\\r/g;
2709                $escapedLine =~ s/\t/\\t/g;
2710                Trace("Line read: -->$escapedLine<--");
2711            }
2712            # If the line is empty, return a single empty string; otherwise, parse
2713            # it into fields.
2714            if ($line eq "") {
2715                push @retVal, "";
2716              } else {              } else {
2717                  # Apply the override.              push @retVal, split /\t/,$line;
                 $defaults->{$option} = $setting;  
             }  
2718          }          }
2719        } else {
2720            # Trace the reason the read failed.
2721            Trace("End of file: $!") if T(File => 3);
2722      }      }
2723      # Return the merged table.      # Return the result.
2724      return $defaults;      return @retVal;
2725  }  }
2726    
2727  =head3 MergeOptions  =head3 PutLine
2728    
2729  C<< Tracer::MergeOptions(\%table, \%defaults); >>      Tracer::PutLine($handle, \@fields, $eol);
2730    
2731  Merge default values into a hash table. This method looks at the key-value pairs in the  Write a line of data to a tab-delimited file. The specified field values will be
2732  second (default) hash, and if a matching key is not found in the first hash, the default  output in tab-separated form, with a trailing new-line.
 pair is copied in. The process is similar to L</GetOptions>, but there is no error-  
 checking and no return value.  
2733    
2734  =over 4  =over 4
2735    
2736  =item table  =item handle
2737    
2738  Hash table to be updated with the default values.  Output file handle.
2739    
2740  =item defaults  =item fields
2741    
2742  Default values to be merged into the first hash table if they are not already present.  List of field values.
2743    
2744    =item eol (optional)
2745    
2746    End-of-line character (default is "\n").
2747    
2748  =back  =back
2749    
2750  =cut  =cut
2751    
2752  sub MergeOptions {  sub PutLine {
2753      # Get the parameters.      # Get the parameters.
2754      my ($table, $defaults) = @_;      my ($handle, $fields, $eol) = @_;
2755      # Loop through the defaults.      # Write the data.
2756      while (my ($key, $value) = each %{$defaults}) {      print $handle join("\t", @{$fields}) . ($eol || "\n");
         if (!exists $table->{$key}) {  
             $table->{$key} = $value;  
         }  
     }  
2757  }  }
2758    
 =head3 Trace  
2759    
2760  C<< Trace($message); >>  =head3 PrintLine
2761    
2762  Write a trace message to the target location specified in L</TSetup>. If there has not been      Tracer::PrintLine($line);
2763  any prior call to B<TSetup>.  
2764    Print a line of text with a trailing new-line.
2765    
2766  =over 4  =over 4
2767    
2768  =item message  =item line
2769    
2770  Message to write.  Line of text to print.
2771    
2772  =back  =back
2773    
2774  =cut  =cut
2775    
2776  sub Trace {  sub PrintLine {
2777      # Get the parameters.      # Get the parameters.
2778      my ($message) = @_;      my ($line) = @_;
2779      # Get the timestamp.      # Print the line.
2780      my $timeStamp = Now();      print "$line\n";
     # Format the message. Note we strip off any line terminators at the end.  
     my $formatted = "$timeStamp <$LastCategory>: " . Strip($message);  
     # Process according to the destination.  
     if ($Destination eq "TEXT") {  
         # Write the message to the standard output.  
         print "$formatted\n";  
     } elsif ($Destination eq "ERROR") {  
         # Write the message to the error output.  
         print STDERR "$formatted\n";  
     } elsif ($Destination eq "QUEUE") {  
         # Push the message into the queue.  
         push @Queue, "$formatted";  
     } elsif ($Destination eq "HTML") {  
         # Convert the message to HTML and write it to the standard output.  
         my $escapedMessage = CGI::escapeHTML($message);  
         print "<p>$formatted</p>\n";  
     } elsif ($Destination eq "WARN") {  
        # Emit the message as a warning.  
        warn $message;  
     } elsif ($Destination =~ m/^>>/) {  
         # Write the trace message to an output file.  
         (open TRACING, $Destination) || die "Tracing open for \"$Destination\" failed: $!";  
         print TRACING "$formatted\n";  
         close TRACING;  
         # If the Tee flag is on, echo it to the standard output.  
         if ($TeeFlag) {  
             print "$formatted\n";  
         }  
     }  
2781  }  }
2782    
 =head3 T  
2783    
2784  C<< my $switch = T($category, $traceLevel); >>  =head2 Other Useful Methods
2785    
2786      or  =head3 ParseParm
2787    
2788  C<< my $switch = T($traceLevel); >>      my $listValue = Tracer::ParseParm($string);
2789    
2790  Return TRUE if the trace level is at or above a specified value and the specified category  Convert a parameter into a list reference. If the parameter is undefined,
2791  is active, else FALSE. If no category is specified, the caller's package name is used.  an undefined value will be returned. Otherwise, it will be parsed as a
2792    comma-separated list of values.
2793    
2794  =over 4  =over 4
2795    
2796  =item category  =item string
   
 Category to which the message belongs. If not specified, the caller's package name is  
 used.  
   
 =item traceLevel  
2797    
2798  Relevant tracing level.  Incoming string.
2799    
2800  =item RETURN  =item RETURN
2801    
2802  TRUE if a message at the specified trace level would appear in the trace, else FALSE.  Returns a reference to a list of values, or C<undef> if the incoming value
2803    was undefined.
2804    
2805  =back  =back
2806    
2807  =cut  =cut
2808    
2809  sub T {  sub ParseParm {
     # Declare the return variable.  
     my $retVal = 0;  
     # Only proceed if tracing is turned on.  
     if ($Destination ne "NONE") {  
2810          # Get the parameters.          # Get the parameters.
2811          my ($category, $traceLevel) = @_;      my ($string) = @_;
2812          if (!defined $traceLevel) {      # Declare the return variable.
2813              # Here we have no category, so we need to get the calling package.      my $retVal;
2814              # The calling package is normally the first parameter. If it is      # Check for data.
2815              # omitted, the first parameter will be the tracelevel. So, the      if (defined $string) {
2816              # first thing we do is shift the so-called category into the          # We have some, so split it into a list.
2817              # $traceLevel variable where it belongs.          $retVal = [ split /\s*,\s*/, $string];
             $traceLevel = $category;  
             my ($package, $fileName, $line) = caller;  
             # If there is no calling package, we default to "main".  
             if (!$package) {  
                 $category = "main";  
             } else {  
                 $category = $package;  
             }  
         }  
         # Save the category name.  
         $LastCategory = $category;  
         # Convert it to lower case before we hash it.  
         $category = lc $category;  
         # Use the category and tracelevel to compute the result.  
         if (ref $traceLevel) {  
             Confess("Bad trace level.");  
         } elsif (ref $TraceLevel) {  
             Confess("Bad trace config.");  
         }  
         $retVal = ($traceLevel <= $TraceLevel && ($AllTrace || exists $Categories{$category}));  
2818      }      }
2819      # Return the computed result.      # Return the result.
2820      return $retVal;      return $retVal;
2821  }  }
2822    
2823  =head3 ParseCommand  =head3 Now
   
 C<< my ($options, @arguments) = Tracer::ParseCommand(\%optionTable, @inputList); >>  
   
 Parse a command line consisting of a list of parameters. The initial parameters may be option  
 specifiers of the form C<->I<option> or C<->I<option>C<=>I<value>. The options are stripped  
 off and merged into a table of default options. The remainder of the command line is  
 returned as a list of positional arguments. For example, consider the following invocation.  
   
 C<< my ($options, @arguments) = ParseCommand({ errors => 0, logFile => 'trace.log'}, @words); >>  
2824    
2825  In this case, the list @words will be treated as a command line. There are two options available,      my $string = Tracer::Now();
 B<errors> and B<logFile>. If @words has the following format  
2826    
2827  C<< -logFile=error.log apple orange rutabaga >>  Return a displayable time stamp containing the local time. Whatever format this
2828    method produces must be parseable by L</ParseDate>.
2829    
2830  then at the end of the invocation, C<$options> will be  =cut
2831    
2832  C<< { errors => 0, logFile => 'error.log' } >>  sub Now {
2833        return DisplayTime(time);
2834    }
2835    
2836  and C<@arguments> will contain  =head3 DisplayTime
2837    
2838  C<< apple orange rutabaga >>      my $string = Tracer::DisplayTime($time);
2839    
2840  The parser allows for some escape sequences. See L</UnEscape> for a description. There is no  Convert a time value to a displayable time stamp. Whatever format this
2841  support for quote characters.  method produces must be parseable by L</ParseDate>.
2842    
2843  =over 4  =over 4
2844    
2845  =item optionTable  =item time
   
 Table of default options.  
   
 =item inputList  
2846    
2847  List of words on the command line.  Time to display, in seconds since the epoch, or C<undef> if the time is unknown.
2848    
2849  =item RETURN  =item RETURN
2850    
2851  Returns a reference to the option table and a list of the positional arguments.  Returns a displayable time, or C<(n/a)> if the incoming time is undefined.
2852    
2853  =back  =back
2854    
2855  =cut  =cut
2856    
2857  sub ParseCommand {  sub DisplayTime {
2858      # Get the parameters.      my ($time) = @_;
2859      my ($optionTable, @inputList) = @_;      my $retVal = "(n/a)";
2860      # Process any options in the input list.      if (defined $time) {
2861      my %overrides = ();          my ($sec,$min,$hour,$mday,$mon,$year,$wday,$yday,$isdst) = localtime($time);
2862      while ((@inputList > 0) && ($inputList[0] =~ /^-/)) {          $retVal = _p2($mon+1) . "/" . _p2($mday) . "/" . ($year + 1900) . " " .
2863          # Get the current option.                    _p2($hour) . ":" . _p2($min) . ":" . _p2($sec);
         my $arg = shift @inputList;  
         # Pull out the option name.  
         $arg =~ /^-([^=]*)/g;  
         my $name = $1;  
         # Check for an option value.  
         if ($arg =~ /\G=(.*)$/g) {  
             # Here we have a value for the option.  
             $overrides{$name} = UnEscape($1);  
         } else {  
             # Here there is no value, so we use 1.  
             $overrides{$name} = 1;  
         }  
2864      }      }
2865      # Merge the options into the defaults.      return $retVal;
     GetOptions($optionTable, \%overrides);  
     # Translate the remaining parameters.  
     my @retVal = ();  
     for my $inputParm (@inputList) {  
         push @retVal, UnEscape($inputParm);  
2866      }      }
2867      # Return the results.  
2868      return ($optionTable, @retVal);  # Pad a number to 2 digits.
2869    sub _p2 {
2870        my ($value) = @_;
2871        $value = "0$value" if ($value < 10);
2872        return $value;
2873  }  }
2874    
2875  =head3 Escape  =head3 Escape
2876    
2877  C<< my $codedString = Tracer::Escape($realString); >>      my $codedString = Tracer::Escape($realString);
2878    
2879  Escape a string for use in a command length. Tabs will be replaced by C<\t>, new-lines  Escape a string for use in a command. Tabs will be replaced by C<\t>, new-lines
2880  replaced by C<\n>, carriage returns will be deleted, and backslashes will be doubled. The  replaced by C<\n>, carriage returns will be deleted, and backslashes will be doubled. The
2881  result is to reverse the effect of L</UnEscape>.  result is to reverse the effect of L</UnEscape>.
2882    
# Line 1124  Line 2929 
2929    
2930  =head3 UnEscape  =head3 UnEscape
2931    
2932  C<< my $realString = Tracer::UnEscape($codedString); >>      my $realString = Tracer::UnEscape($codedString);
2933    
2934  Replace escape sequences with their actual equivalents. C<\t> will be replaced by  Replace escape sequences with their actual equivalents. C<\t> will be replaced by
2935  a tab, C<\n> by a new-line character, and C<\\> by a backslash. C<\r> codes will  a tab, C<\n> by a new-line character, and C<\\> by a backslash. C<\r> codes will
# Line 1182  Line 2987 
2987      return $retVal;      return $retVal;
2988  }  }
2989    
2990  =head3 ParseRecord  =head3 Percent
   
 C<< my @fields = Tracer::ParseRecord($line); >>  
   
 Parse a tab-delimited data line. The data line is split into field values. Embedded tab  
 and new-line characters in the data line must be represented as C<\t> and C<\n>, respectively.  
 These will automatically be converted.  
   
 =over 4  
   
 =item line  
   
 Line of data containing the tab-delimited fields.  
   
 =item RETURN  
   
 Returns a list of the fields found in the data line.  
   
 =back  
   
 =cut  
   
 sub ParseRecord {  
     # Get the parameter.  
     my ($line) = @_;  
     # Remove the trailing new-line, if any.  
     chomp $line;  
     # Split the line read into pieces using the tab character.  
     my @retVal = split /\t/, $line;  
     # Trim and fix the escapes in each piece.  
     for my $value (@retVal) {  
         # Trim leading whitespace.  
         $value =~ s/^\s+//;  
         # Trim trailing whitespace.  
         $value =~ s/\s+$//;  
         # Delete the carriage returns.  
         $value =~ s/\r//g;  
         # Convert the escapes into their real values.  
         $value =~ s/\\t/"\t"/ge;  
         $value =~ s/\\n/"\n"/ge;  
     }  
     # Return the result.  
     return @retVal;  
 }  
   
 =head3 Merge  
   
 C<< my @mergedList = Tracer::Merge(@inputList); >>  
   
 Sort a list of strings and remove duplicates.  
   
 =over 4  
   
 =item inputList  
   
 List of scalars to sort and merge.  
   
 =item RETURN  
   
 Returns a list containing the same elements sorted in ascending order with duplicates  
 removed.  
   
 =back  
   
 =cut  
   
 sub Merge {  
     # Get the input list in sort order.  
     my @inputList = sort @_;  
     # Only proceed if the list has at least two elements.  
     if (@inputList > 1) {  
         # Now we want to move through the list splicing out duplicates.  
         my $i = 0;  
         while ($i < @inputList) {  
             # Get the current entry.  
             my $thisEntry = $inputList[$i];  
             # Find out how many elements duplicate the current entry.  
             my $j = $i + 1;  
             my $dup1 = $i + 1;  
             while ($j < @inputList && $inputList[$j] eq $thisEntry) { $j++; };  
             # If the number is nonzero, splice out the duplicates found.  
             if ($j > $dup1) {  
                 splice @inputList, $dup1, $j - $dup1;  
             }  
             # Now the element at position $dup1 is different from the element before it  
             # at position $i. We push $i forward one position and start again.  
             $i++;  
         }  
     }  
     # Return the merged list.  
     return @inputList;  
 }  
   
 =head3 GetFile  
   
 C<< my @fileContents = Tracer::GetFile($fileName); >>  
   
     or  
   
 C<< my $fileContents = Tracer::GetFile($fileName); >>  
   
 Return the entire contents of a file. In list context, line-ends are removed and  
 each line is a list element. In scalar context, line-ends are replaced by C<\n>.  
   
 =over 4  
   
 =item fileName  
   
 Name of the file to read.  
   
 =item RETURN  
   
 In a list context, returns the entire file as a list with the line terminators removed.  
 In a scalar context, returns the entire file as a string. If an error occurs opening  
 the file, an empty list will be returned.  
   
 =back  
   
 =cut  
   
 sub GetFile {  
     # Get the parameters.  
     my ($fileName) = @_;  
     # Declare the return variable.  
     my @retVal = ();  
     # Open the file for input.  
     my $ok = open INPUTFILE, "<$fileName";  
     if (!$ok) {  
         # If we had an error, trace it. We will automatically return a null value.  
         Trace("Could not open \"$fileName\" for input: $!") if T(0);  
     } else {  
         # Read the whole file into the return variable, stripping off any terminator  
         # characters.  
         my $lineCount = 0;  
         while (my $line = <INPUTFILE>) {  
             $lineCount++;  
             $line = Strip($line);  
             push @retVal, $line;  
         }  
         # Close it.  
         close INPUTFILE;  
         my $actualLines = @retVal;  
     }  
     # Return the file's contents in the desired format.  
     if (wantarray) {  
         return @retVal;  
     } else {  
         return join "\n", @retVal;  
     }  
 }  
   
 =head3 QTrace  
   
 C<< my $data = QTrace($format); >>  
   
 Return the queued trace data in the specified format.  
   
 =over 4  
   
 =item format  
   
 C<html> to format the data as an HTML list, C<text> to format it as straight text.  
   
 =back  
   
 =cut  
   
 sub QTrace {  
     # Get the parameter.  
     my ($format) = @_;  
     # Create the return variable.  
     my $retVal = "";  
     # Only proceed if there is an actual queue.  
     if (@Queue) {  
         # Process according to the format.  
         if ($format =~ m/^HTML$/i) {  
             # Convert the queue into an HTML list.  
             $retVal = "<ul>\n";  
             for my $line (@Queue) {  
                 my $escapedLine = CGI::escapeHTML($line);  
                 $retVal .= "<li>$escapedLine</li>\n";  
             }  
             $retVal .= "</ul>\n";  
         } elsif ($format =~ m/^TEXT$/i) {  
             # Convert the queue into a list of text lines.  
             $retVal = join("\n", @Queue) . "\n";  
         }  
         # Clear the queue.  
         @Queue = ();  
     }  
     # Return the formatted list.  
     return $retVal;  
 }  
   
 =head3 Confess  
   
 C<< Confess($message); >>  
   
 Trace the call stack and abort the program with the specified message. When used with  
 the OR operator and the L</Assert> method, B<Confess> can function as a debugging assert.  
 So, for example  
   
 C<< Assert($recNum >= 0) || Confess("Invalid record number $recNum."); >>  
   
 Will abort the program with a stack trace if the value of C<$recNum> is negative.  
   
 =over 4  
   
 =item message  
   
 Message to include in the trace.  
2991    
2992  =back      my $percent = Tracer::Percent($number, $base);
2993    
2994  =cut  Returns the percent of the base represented by the given number. If the base
2995    is zero, returns zero.
2996    
2997  sub Confess {  =over 4
     # Get the parameters.  
     my ($message) = @_;  
     # Trace the call stack.  
     Cluck($message);  
     # Abort the program.  
     croak(">>> $message");  
 }  
2998    
2999  =head3 Assert  =item number
3000    
3001  C<< Assert($condition1, $condition2, ... $conditionN); >>  Percent numerator.
3002    
3003  Return TRUE if all the conditions are true. This method can be used in conjunction with  =item base
 the OR operator and the L</Confess> method as a debugging assert.  
 So, for example  
3004    
3005  C<< Assert($recNum >= 0) || Confess("Invalid record number $recNum."); >>  Percent base.
3006    
3007  Will abort the program with a stack trace if the value of C<$recNum> is negative.  =item RETURN
3008    
3009    Returns the percentage of the base represented by the numerator.
3010    
3011    =back
3012    
3013  =cut  =cut
3014  sub Assert {  
3015      my $retVal = 1;  sub Percent {
3016      LOOP: for my $condition (@_) {      # Get the parameters.
3017          if (! $condition) {      my ($number, $base) = @_;
3018              $retVal = 0;      # Declare the return variable.
3019              last LOOP;      my $retVal = 0;
3020          }      # Compute the percent.
3021        if ($base != 0) {
3022            $retVal = $number * 100 / $base;
3023      }      }
3024        # Return the result.
3025      return $retVal;      return $retVal;
3026  }  }
3027    
3028  =head3 Cluck  =head3 Constrain
3029    
3030  C<< Cluck($message); >>      my $constrained = Constrain($value, $min, $max);
3031    
3032  Trace the call stack. Note that for best results, you should qualify the call with a  Modify a numeric value to bring it to a point in between a maximum and a minimum.
 trace condition. For example,  
3033    
3034  C<< Cluck("Starting record parse.") if T(3); >>  =over 4
3035    
3036  will only trace the stack if the trace level for the package is 3 or more.  =item value
3037    
3038  =over 4  Value to constrain.
3039    
3040  =item message  =item min (optional)
3041    
3042  Message to include in the trace.  Minimum permissible value. If this parameter is undefined, no minimum constraint will be applied.
3043    
3044    =item max (optional)
3045    
3046    Maximum permissible value. If this parameter is undefined, no maximum constraint will be applied.
3047    
3048    =item RETURN
3049    
3050    Returns the incoming value, constrained according to the other parameters.
3051    
3052  =back  =back
3053    
3054  =cut  =cut
3055    
3056  sub Cluck {  sub Constrain {
3057      # Get the parameters.      # Get the parameters.
3058      my ($message) = @_;      my ($value, $min, $max) = @_;
3059      # Trace what's happening.      # Declare the return variable.
3060      Trace("Stack trace for event: $message");      my $retVal = $value;
3061      my $confession = longmess($message);      # Apply the minimum constraint.
3062      # Convert the confession to a series of trace messages. Note we skip any      if (defined $min && $retVal < $min) {
3063      # messages relating to calls into Tracer.          $retVal = $min;
3064      for my $line (split /\s*\n/, $confession) {      }
3065          Trace($line) if ($line !~ /Tracer\.pm/);      # Apply the maximum constraint.
3066        if (defined $max && $retVal > $max) {
3067            $retVal = $max;
3068      }      }
3069        # Return the result.
3070        return $retVal;
3071  }  }
3072    
3073  =head3 Min  =head3 Min
3074    
3075  C<< my $min = Min($value1, $value2, ... $valueN); >>      my $min = Min($value1, $value2, ... $valueN);
3076    
3077  Return the minimum argument. The arguments are treated as numbers.  Return the minimum argument. The arguments are treated as numbers.
3078    
# Line 1500  Line 3105 
3105    
3106  =head3 Max  =head3 Max
3107    
3108  C<< my $max = Max($value1, $value2, ... $valueN); >>      my $max = Max($value1, $value2, ... $valueN);
3109    
3110  Return the maximum argument. The arguments are treated as numbers.  Return the maximum argument. The arguments are treated as numbers.
3111    
# Line 1531  Line 3136 
3136      return $retVal;      return $retVal;
3137  }  }
3138    
 =head3 AddToListMap  
   
 C<< Tracer::AddToListMap(\%hash, $key, $value); >>  
   
 Add a key-value pair to a hash of lists. If no value exists for the key, a singleton list  
 is created for the key. Otherwise, the new value is pushed onto the list.  
   
 =over 4  
   
 =item hash  
   
 Reference to the target hash.  
   
 =item key  
   
 Key for which the value is to be added.  
   
 =item value  
   
 Value to add to the key's value list.  
   
 =back  
   
 =cut  
   
 sub AddToListMap {  
     # Get the parameters.  
     my ($hash, $key, $value) = @_;  
     # Process according to whether or not the key already has a value.  
     if (! exists $hash->{$key}) {  
         $hash->{$key} = [$value];  
     } else {  
         push @{$hash->{$key}}, $value;  
     }  
 }  
   
 =head3 DebugMode  
   
 C<< if (Tracer::DebugMode) { ...code... } >>  
   
 Return TRUE if debug mode has been turned on, else output an error  
 page and return FALSE.  
   
 Certain CGI scripts are too dangerous to exist in the production  
 environment. This method provides a simple way to prevent them  
 from working unless they are explicitly turned on by creating a password  
 cookie via the B<SetPassword> script.  If debugging mode  
 is not turned on, an error web page will be output directing the  
 user to enter in the correct password.  
   
 =cut  
   
 sub DebugMode {  
     # Declare the return variable.  
     my $retVal = 0;  
     # Check the debug configuration.  
     my $password = CGI::cookie("DebugMode");  
     my $encrypted = Digest::MD5::md5_hex($password);  
     if ($encrypted eq "252dec43280e0c0d6a75ffcec486e61d") {  
         $retVal = 1;  
     } else {  
         # Here debug mode is off, so we generate an error page.  
         my $pageString = PageBuilder::Build("<Html/ErrorPage.html", {}, "Html");  
         print $pageString;  
     }  
     # Return the determination indicator.  
     return $retVal;  
 }  
3139    
3140  =head3 Strip  =head3 Strip
3141    
3142  C<< my $string = Tracer::Strip($line); >>      my $string = Tracer::Strip($line);
3143    
3144  Strip all line terminators off a string. This is necessary when dealing with files  Strip all line terminators off a string. This is necessary when dealing with files
3145  that may have been transferred back and forth several times among different  that may have been transferred back and forth several times among different
# Line 1634  Line 3171 
3171    
3172  =head3 Pad  =head3 Pad
3173    
3174  C<< my $paddedString = Tracer::Pad($string, $len, $left, $padChar); >>      my $paddedString = Tracer::Pad($string, $len, $left, $padChar);
3175    
3176  Pad a string to a specified length. The pad character will be a  Pad a string to a specified length. The pad character will be a
3177  space, and the padding will be on the right side unless specified  space, and the padding will be on the right side unless specified
# Line 1705  Line 3242 
3242    
3243  =head3 TICK  =head3 TICK
3244    
3245  C<< my @results = TICK($commandString); >>      my @results = TICK($commandString);
3246    
3247  Perform a back-tick operation on a command. If this is a Windows environment, any leading  Perform a back-tick operation on a command. If this is a Windows environment, any leading
3248  dot-slash (C<./> will be removed. So, for example, if you were doing  dot-slash (C<./> will be removed. So, for example, if you were doing
# Line 1744  Line 3281 
3281      return `$commandString`;      return `$commandString`;
3282  }  }
3283    
 =head3 ScriptSetup  
3284    
3285  C<< my ($query, $varHash) = ScriptSetup(); >>  =head3 CommaFormat
3286    
3287  Perform standard tracing and debugging setup for scripts. The value returned is      my $formatted = Tracer::CommaFormat($number);
3288  the CGI object followed by a pre-built variable hash.  
3289    Insert commas into a number.
3290    
3291  The C<Trace> query parameter is used to determine whether or not tracing is active and  =over 4
3292  which trace modules (other than C<Tracer> and C<FIG>) should be turned on. Specifying  
3293  the C<CGI> trace module will trace parameter and environment information. Parameters are  =item number
3294  traced at level 3 and environment variables at level 4. At the end of the script, the  
3295  client should call L</ScriptFinish> to output the web page.  A sequence of digits.
3296    
3297    =item RETURN
3298    
3299    Returns the same digits with commas strategically inserted.
3300    
3301    =back
3302    
3303  =cut  =cut
3304    
3305  sub ScriptSetup {  sub CommaFormat {
3306      # Get the CGI query object.      # Get the parameters.
3307      my $query = CGI->new();      my ($number) = @_;
3308      # Check for tracing. Set it up if the user asked for it.      # Pad the length up to a multiple of three.
3309      if ($query->param('Trace')) {      my $padded = "$number";
3310          # Set up tracing to be queued for display at the bottom of the web page.      $padded = " " . $padded while length($padded) % 3 != 0;
3311          TSetup($query->param('Trace') . " FIG Tracer", "QUEUE");      # This is a fancy PERL trick. The parentheses in the SPLIT pattern
3312          # Trace the parameter and environment data.      # cause the delimiters to be included in the output stream. The
3313          if (T(CGI => 3)) {      # GREP removes the empty strings in between the delimiters.
3314              # Here we want to trace the parameter data.      my $retVal = join(",", grep { $_ ne '' } split(/(...)/, $padded));
3315              my @names = $query->param;      # Clean out the spaces.
3316              for my $parmName (sort @names) {      $retVal =~ s/ //g;
3317                  # Note we skip "Trace", which is for our use only.      # Return the result.
3318                  if ($parmName ne 'Trace') {      return $retVal;
                     my @values = $query->param($parmName);  
                     Trace("CGI: $parmName = " . join(", ", @values));  
                 }  
             }  
         }  
         if (T(CGI => 4)) {  
             # Here we want the environment data too.  
             for my $envName (sort keys %ENV) {  
                 Trace("ENV: $envName = $ENV{$envName}");  
             }  
3319          }          }
3320    
3321    
3322    =head3 CompareLists
3323    
3324        my ($inserted, $deleted) = Tracer::CompareLists(\@newList, \@oldList, $keyIndex);
3325    
3326    Compare two lists of tuples, and return a hash analyzing the differences. The lists
3327    are presumed to be sorted alphabetically by the value in the $keyIndex column.
3328    The return value contains a list of items that are only in the new list
3329    (inserted) and only in the old list (deleted).
3330    
3331    =over 4
3332    
3333    =item newList
3334    
3335    Reference to a list of new tuples.
3336    
3337    =item oldList
3338    
3339    Reference to a list of old tuples.
3340    
3341    =item keyIndex (optional)
3342    
3343    Index into each tuple of its key field. The default is 0.
3344    
3345    =item RETURN
3346    
3347    Returns a 2-tuple consisting of a reference to the list of items that are only in the new
3348    list (inserted) followed by a reference to the list of items that are only in the old
3349    list (deleted).
3350    
3351    =back
3352    
3353    =cut
3354    
3355    sub CompareLists {
3356        # Get the parameters.
3357        my ($newList, $oldList, $keyIndex) = @_;
3358        if (! defined $keyIndex) {
3359            $keyIndex = 0;
3360        }
3361        # Declare the return variables.
3362        my ($inserted, $deleted) = ([], []);
3363        # Loop through the two lists simultaneously.
3364        my ($newI, $oldI) = (0, 0);
3365        my ($newN, $oldN) = (scalar @{$newList}, scalar @{$oldList});
3366        while ($newI < $newN || $oldI < $oldN) {
3367            # Get the current object in each list. Note that if one
3368            # of the lists is past the end, we'll get undef.
3369            my $newItem = $newList->[$newI];
3370            my $oldItem = $oldList->[$oldI];
3371            if (! defined($newItem) || defined($oldItem) && $newItem->[$keyIndex] gt $oldItem->[$keyIndex]) {
3372                # The old item is not in the new list, so mark it deleted.
3373                push @{$deleted}, $oldItem;
3374                $oldI++;
3375            } elsif (! defined($oldItem) || $oldItem->[$keyIndex] gt $newItem->[$keyIndex]) {
3376                # The new item is not in the old list, so mark it inserted.
3377                push @{$inserted}, $newItem;
3378                $newI++;
3379      } else {      } else {
3380          # Here tracing is to be turned off. All we allow is errors traced into the              # The item is in both lists, so push forward.
3381          # error log.              $oldI++;
3382          TSetup("0", "WARN");              $newI++;
3383      }      }
     # Create the variable hash.  
     my $varHash = { DebugData => '' };  
     # If we're in DEBUG mode, set up the debug mode data for forms.  
     if (Tracer::DebugMode) {  
         $varHash->{DebugData} = GetFile("Html/DebugFragment.html");  
3384      }      }
3385      # Return the query object and variable hash.      # Return the result.
3386      return ($query, $varHash);      return ($inserted, $deleted);
3387  }  }
3388    
3389  =head3 ScriptFinish  =head3 GenerateURL
3390    
3391  C<< ScriptFinish($webData, $varHash); >>      my $queryUrl = Tracer::GenerateURL($page, %parameters);
3392    
3393  Output a web page at the end of a script. Either the string to be output or the  Generate a GET-style URL for the specified page with the specified parameter
3394  name of a template file can be specified. If the second parameter is omitted,  names and values. The values will be URL-escaped automatically. So, for
3395  it is assumed we have a string to be output; otherwise, it is assumed we have the  example
 name of a template file. The template should have the variable C<DebugData>  
 specified in any form that invokes a standard script. If debugging mode is turned  
 on, a form field will be put in that allows the user to enter tracing data.  
 Trace messages will be placed immediately before the terminal C<BODY> tag in  
 the output, formatted as a list.  
3396    
3397  A typical standard script would loook like the following.      Tracer::GenerateURL("form.cgi", type => 1, string => "\"high pass\" or highway")
3398    
3399      BEGIN {  would return
         # Print the HTML header.  
         print "CONTENT-TYPE: text/html\n\n";  
     }  
     use Tracer;  
     use CGI;  
     use FIG;  
     # ... more uses ...  
3400    
3401      my ($query, $varHash) = ScriptSetup();      form.cgi?type=1;string=%22high%20pass%22%20or%20highway
3402      eval {  
3403          # ... get data from $query, put it in $varHash ...  =over 4
3404      };  
3405      if ($@) {  =item page
3406          Trace("Script Error: $@") if T(0);  
3407    Page URL.
3408    
3409    =item parameters
3410    
3411    Hash mapping parameter names to parameter values.
3412    
3413    =item RETURN
3414    
3415    Returns a GET-style URL that goes to the specified page and passes in the
3416    specified parameters and values.
3417    
3418    =back
3419    
3420    =cut
3421    
3422    sub GenerateURL {
3423        # Get the parameters.
3424        my ($page, %parameters) = @_;
3425        # Prime the return variable with the page URL.
3426        my $retVal = $page;
3427        # Loop through the parameters, creating parameter elements in a list.
3428        my @parmList = map { "$_=" . uri_escape($parameters{$_}) } keys %parameters;
3429        # If the list is nonempty, tack it on.
3430        if (@parmList) {
3431            $retVal .= "?" . join(";", @parmList);
3432        }
3433        # Return the result.
3434        return $retVal;
3435      }      }
     ScriptFinish("Html/MyTemplate.html", $varHash);  
3436    
3437  The idea here is that even if the script fails, you'll see trace messages and  =head3 ApplyURL
3438  useful output.  
3439        Tracer::ApplyURL($table, $target, $url);
3440    
3441    Run through a two-dimensional table (or more accurately, a list of lists), converting the
3442    I<$target> column to HTML text having a hyperlink to a URL in the I<$url> column. The
3443    URL column will be deleted by this process and the target column will be HTML-escaped.
3444    
3445    This provides a simple way to process the results of a database query into something
3446    displayable by combining a URL with text.
3447    
3448  =over 4  =over 4
3449    
3450  =item webData  =item table
3451    
3452  A string containing either the full web page to be written to the output or the  Reference to a list of lists. The elements in the containing list will be updated by
3453  name of a template file from which the page is to be constructed. If the name  this method.
 of a template file is specified, then the second parameter must be present;  
 otherwise, it must be absent.  
3454    
3455  =item varHash (optional)  =item target
3456    
3457  If specified, then a reference to a hash mapping variable names for a template  The index of the column to be converted into HTML.
3458  to their values. The template file will be read into memory, and variable markers  
3459  will be replaced by data in this hash reference.  =item url
3460    
3461    The index of the column containing the URL. Note that the URL must have a recognizable
3462    C<http:> at the beginning.
3463    
3464  =back  =back
3465    
3466  =cut  =cut
3467    
3468  sub ScriptFinish {  sub ApplyURL {
3469      # Get the parameters.      # Get the parameters.
3470      my ($webData, $varHash) = @_;      my ($table, $target, $url) = @_;
3471      # Check for a template file situation.      # Loop through the table.
3472      my $outputString;      for my $row (@{$table}) {
3473      if (defined $varHash) {          # Apply the URL to the target cell.
3474          # Here we have a template file. We need to apply the variables to the template.          $row->[$target] = CombineURL($row->[$target], $row->[$url]);
3475          $outputString = PageBuilder::Build("<$webData", $varHash, "Html");          # Delete the URL from the row.
3476      } else {          delete $row->[$url];
         # Here the user gave us a raw string.  
         $outputString = $webData;  
3477      }      }
     # Check for trace messages.  
     if ($Destination eq "QUEUE") {  
         # We have trace messages, so we want to put them at the end of the body. This  
         # is either at the end of the whole string or at the beginning of the BODY  
         # end-tag.  
         my $pos = length $outputString;  
         if ($outputString =~ m#</body>#gi) {  
             $pos = (pos $outputString) - 7;  
3478          }          }
3479          substr $outputString, $pos, 0, QTrace('Html');  
3480    =head3 CombineURL
3481    
3482        my $combinedHtml = Tracer::CombineURL($text, $url);
3483    
3484    This method will convert the specified text into HTML hyperlinked to the specified
3485    URL. The hyperlinking will only take place if the URL looks legitimate: that is, it
3486    is defined and begins with an C<http:> header.
3487    
3488    =over 4
3489    
3490    =item text
3491    
3492    Text to return. This will be HTML-escaped automatically.
3493    
3494    =item url
3495    
3496    A URL to be hyperlinked to the text. If it does not look like a URL, then the text
3497    will be returned without any hyperlinking.
3498    
3499    =item RETURN
3500    
3501    Returns the original text, HTML-escaped, with the URL hyperlinked to it. If the URL
3502    doesn't look right, the HTML-escaped text will be returned without any further
3503    modification.
3504    
3505    =back
3506    
3507    =cut
3508    
3509    sub CombineURL {
3510        # Get the parameters.
3511        my ($text, $url) = @_;
3512        # Declare the return variable.
3513        my $retVal = CGI::escapeHTML($text);
3514        # Verify the URL.
3515        if (defined($url) && $url =~ m!http://!i) {
3516            # It's good, so we apply it to the text.
3517            $retVal = "<a href=\"$url\">$retVal</a>";
3518      }      }
3519      # Write the output string.      # Return the result.
3520      print $outputString;      return $retVal;
3521  }  }
3522    
3523  =head3 Insure  =head3 Cmp
3524    
3525  C<< Insure($dirName); >>      my $cmp = Tracer::Cmp($a, $b);
3526    
3527  Insure a directory is present.  This method performs a universal sort comparison. Each value coming in is
3528    separated into a leading text part and a trailing number part. The text
3529    part is string compared, and if both parts are equal, then the number
3530    parts are compared numerically. A stream of just numbers or a stream of
3531    just strings will sort correctly, and a mixed stream will sort with the
3532    numbers first. Strings with a label and a number will sort in the
3533    expected manner instead of lexically.
3534    
3535  =over 4  =over 4
3536    
3537  =item dirName  =item a
3538    
3539  Name of the directory to check. If it does not exist, it will be created.  First item to compare.
3540    
3541    =item b
3542    
3543    Second item to compare.
3544    
3545    =item RETURN
3546    
3547    Returns a negative number if the first item should sort first (is less), a positive
3548    number if the first item should sort second (is greater), and a zero if the items are
3549    equal.
3550    
3551  =back  =back
3552    
3553  =cut  =cut
3554    
3555  sub Insure {  sub Cmp {
3556      my ($dirName) = @_;      # Get the parameters.
3557      if (! -d $dirName) {      my ($a, $b) = @_;
3558          Trace("Creating $dirName directory.") if T(2);      # Declare the return value.
3559          mkpath $dirName;      my $retVal;
3560        # Check for nulls.
3561        if (! defined($a)) {
3562            $retVal = (! defined($b) ? 0 : -1);
3563        } elsif (! defined($b)) {
3564            $retVal = 1;
3565        } else {
3566            # Here we have two real values. Parse the two strings.
3567            $a =~ /^(\D*)(\d*)$/;
3568            my $aParsed = [$1, $2];
3569            $b =~ /^(\D*)(\d*)$/;
3570            my $bParsed = [$1, $2];
3571            # Compare the string parts.
3572            $retVal = $aParsed->[0] cmp $bParsed->[0];
3573            if (! $retVal) {
3574                $retVal = $aParsed->[1] <=> $bParsed->[1];
3575            }
3576        }
3577        # Return the result.
3578        return $retVal;
3579    }
3580    
3581    
3582    =head3 TrackingCode
3583    
3584        my $html = Tracer::TrackingCode();
3585    
3586    Returns the HTML code for doing web page traffic monitoring. If the
3587    current environment is a test system, then it returns a null string;
3588    otherwise, it returns a bunch of javascript containing code for turning
3589    on SiteMeter and Google Analytics.
3590    
3591    =cut
3592    
3593    sub TrackingCode {
3594        # Declare the return variable.
3595        my $retVal = "<!-- tracking off -->";
3596        # Determine if we're in production.
3597        if ($FIG_Config::site_meter) {
3598            $retVal = <<END_HTML
3599            <!-- Site Meter -->
3600            <script type="text/javascript" src="http://s20.sitemeter.com/js/counter.js?site=s20nmpdr">
3601            </script>
3602            <noscript>
3603            <a href="http://s20.sitemeter.com/stats.asp?site=s20nmpdr" target="_top">
3604            <img src="http://s20.sitemeter.com/meter.asp?site=s20nmpdr" alt="Site Meter" border="0"/></a>
3605            </noscript>
3606            <!-- Copyright (c)2006 Site Meter -->
3607    END_HTML
3608      }      }
3609        return $retVal;
3610  }  }
3611    
3612    
3613  1;  1;

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